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Full text of "Adornment in clay: ceramic netsuke from the Richard R. Silverman Collection"

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Adornment in Clay 




Ceramic Netsuke from the 
Richard R. Silverman Collection 





Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Toledo Museum of Art 



http://archive.org/details/adornmentinclaycOOIaur 



flttt 

Adornment in Clay 

Ceramic Netsuke from the 
Richard R. Silverman Collection 



Laura J. Mueller 



Toledo Museum of Art 
Toledo, Ohio 



Publication of this book 

was made possible through 

the generous support 

of the 

E. Rhodes and Leona B. 

Carpenter Foundation 



This book was published with the assistance ofthi 
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. 



Author's Acknowledgments 



First published in conjunction with the exhibition Life in 
Miniature: Ceramic Netsuke from the Silverman Collection at lh> 
Toledo Museum of Art, October 1, 20 1( (-February 27, 2011. 

FIRST EDITION 

D2010 The Toledo Museum of Art 

All rights reserved. Except for legitimate excerpts customary 
in review or scholarly publications, no part of this book may be 
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any 
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, 
recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of 
the Toledo Museum of Art. 

All of the objects featured in this book, unless otherwise 
specified, are in the collection of the Toledo Museum of Art. 
Digitized images are available from the Visual Resources 
Collection. 

ISBN 0-935172-38-6 



Printed in Korea. All rights reserved unde 
American Copyright Conventions. 

The Toledo Museum of Art 

2445 Monroe Street 

P.O.Box 1013 

Toledo, Ohio USA 43697-1 01 3 

Tel. (419) 255-8000 

w \\ wloledomuseum.oru 



International and Pan- 



It is with heartfelt gratitude that I acknowledge the friendship of curator of Asian Art, Carolyn 
M. Putney. This is the second publication project I have embarked on for the Toledo Museum 
of Art, and it is her dedication to Japanese art and support of my work that has made my 
involvement in these two exhibition catalogs possible. I must also thank publications manager 
Paula Reich, for her work on this project. Her enthusiasm and insightful editing have greatly 
improved these pages, and her warm humor and friendship have brought unexpected joy 
to the project. In addition, I thank Richard P. Goodbody for his keen eye and wonderful 
sensibility that comes through in his beautiful photography. 

Of course, this exhibition and catalog would never have been possible without the passion 
and generosity of Richard R. Silverman. I have learned a lot during our meetings and phone 
conversations, and have been awed by his commitment not only to his netsuke collection, 
but also to the Toledo Museum of Art. My biggest hope is that this catalog does justice to his 
fascinating collection, and helps bring about a fuller appreciation of the subject. 

Special thanks must also be given to Louise Cort, Curator for Ceramics at The Freer Gallery 
of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, for her generous insight and expertise that have brought 
about a greater understanding to this little-studied field. I would also like to recognize my 
colleagues Robert Goree and Terry Milhaupt, who read drafts and offered invaluable advice 
on my essay. 

And lastly to my parents who continue to support and encourage me. 

Laura J. Mueller 
July 2010, New York 



Curator of Asian Art: Carolyn M. Putney 

Publications Manager: Paula Reich 

Editor: Paula Reich 

Designer: Leah Brasch 

Composition: Times New Roman, typo3 

Printing: Tara TPS Co., Ltd., through Four Colour Print Group, 

Louisville, Kentucky 

Photography: all photographs are by Richard Goodbody, Inc., 

New York, New York; except p. 8 top, p. 9 top, p. 11, and p. I 7, 

Tim Thayer, Oak Park, Michigan; p. 13, and p. 14, Photograph 

Studio, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York; 

p. 15, Ruth Chandler Williamson Gallery, Scripps College, 

Claremont, California; and p. 27, Sumisho Art Gallery, Tokyo, 

Japan 



Front cover: Shishimai child dancer holding a lion mask, early 

19th century, 2009.86 (Cat. 8) 

p. 4-5: MaskofShojo, late 19th century, 2009.272 

(Checklist p. 69) 

p. 6: Mokugyo gong with confronting dragon-fish, early 19th 

century, 2009.87 (Cat. 10) 

Back cover and p. 53: Rat, early 19th century, 2009.68 (Cat. 1) 



Contents 



2 Author's Acknowledgments 

4 Foreword 

Carolyn M. Putney 

5 Acknowledgments 

Carolyn M. Putney 

6 Introduction 

Neil K. Davey 

Collecting Ceramic Netsuke My Personal Journey 

Richard R. Silverman 

11 A History of Ceramic Netsuke 

Laura J. Mueller 

25 Selected Highlights 

Laura J. Mueller 

54 Map of Kiln Locations and Checklist Introduction 

55 Checklist of the Richard R. Silverman Ceramic Netsuke Collection 
78 Glossary of Selected Japanese Words from the Checklist 

81 Selected Bibliography 

82 Index 



Foreword 



The Toledo Museum of Art is renowned in select circles for its wonderful 
netsuke collection, which was started with a single gift in 1926 by a friend 
of Florence Scott Libbey, one of the Museum's founders. Three additional 
donors expanded the collection over many years: Mr. & Mrs. Noah Swayne 
in the late 1920s, Mr. Harry Fee in the 1940s and 50s, and since the 1980s, 
Mr. Richard R. Silverman. 

While Richard Silverman has donated many types of Japanese art to the 
Museum — including glass, scrolls, ceramics, and a rare silver, wood, and 
tile hand warmer — his true love is for the miniature art form of netsuke. 
Mr. Silverman is one of the preeminent collectors of Japanese netsuke 
and has shared his knowledge, time, and love of Japanese art with the 
world, but most particularly and generously with the Toledo Museum 
of Art. A native of Toledo, he spent over sixteen years in Japan and has 
devoted much of his life to collecting, teaching, lecturing, and writing on 
the arts of that country. 

With this catalogue and the exhibition Life in Miniature, we are able 
to announce his largest and most recent gift to the Museum — his entire 
collection of two hundred and twenty-six ceramic netsuke. These fragile 
objects are rare indeed and represent the finest of their manufacture. This 
collection, which constitutes only a small part of his larger netsuke collec- 
tion, consists of examples from every major ceramics kiln center in Japan. 
The fact that these have survived intact over centuries is amazing, and the 
subjects are both intriguing and charming. 



We are proud of the breadth and quality of the netsuke collection at the 
Toledo Museum of Art, and it continues to be a favorite part of the galler- 
ies for many of our visitors. We know Mr. Silverman's generous donation 
and the resulting exhibition will bring renewed delight to our audiences. This 
catalogue, thoroughly researched by scholar Laura J. Mueller, will provide new 
information on this rare subject, and will enrich the field of netsuke study, allow- 
ing worldwide access to this unique collection. 



Acknowledgments 



This exhibition and catalogue would not have been possible without the expertise, generosity. 
and vision of Richard R. Silverman. He has helped the Museum for over thirty-five years with 
its collection of Japanese art in general and most particularly in shaping and expanding our 
important collection of netsuke — most recently with his tremendous gift of more than two 
hundred ceramic netsuke. We extend to him our sincere thanks for his dedication to the Toledo 
Museum of Art. 

We would also like to thank Don Bacigalupi, our former director, for green lighting the show 
and the catalogue, which will be an important addition to the field of knowledge on this subject. 
And without the support of Rod Bigelow, interim executive director and chief operating officer, 
we would not have been able to bring this project to completion. 

In addition, we offer gratitude to Richard's longtime friends, Norman Sandfield for his support 
of the exhibition, and Neil Davey for his contributing introduction to this catalogue. Their 
enthusiasm and expertise are truly appreciated. 

Laura J. Mueller, the author of the catalogue, delved deep into the complexities of the ceramic 
netsuke world, illuminating these fascinating objects. We thank her for her work, her insight, and 
her unfailing good humor. Her words are paired with Richard Goodbody's beautiful photographs, 
which bring the collection to life. 

We also thank the many members of the dedicated staff of the Toledo Museum of Art who 
have made possible the preparation and execution of both book and exhibition. In particular, we 
would like to acknowledge and thank Paula Reich, publications manager; Sandra Knudsen, for 
her publishing expertise and assistance; Claude Fixler, our exhibition designer; Leah Brasch, 
who designed the catalogue and the exhibition graphics; Amy Gilman and Karen Serota, in 
charge of exhibitions; Tim Motz, educational media administrator; Jeffrey Boyer, conservation 
assistant; Julia Hayes, Visual Resources curator; Pat Whitesides, registrar; and Andrea Mall, 
associate registrar. We also thank our art handlers, Russ Curry, Jason DePriest, Tom Duffy, and 
Tim Gaewsky for making casework and mounts for the exhibition. Thanks to all the folks in the 
Library, Visual Resources, Marketing, Development, and Visitor Services for their boundless 
help in so many ways. 



Carolyn M. Putney 
Curator of Asian Art 
Toledo Museum of Art 



Introduction 



The name of Richard R. Silverman has been for many years synonymous with netsuke 
collecting. He has amassed over one thousand examples of this miniature art form, cover- 
ing an extraordinary range of styles, subject matter, and materials, dating from the seven- 
teenth century to the present day. 

Among the materials represented is ceramic. Silverman's collection of netsuke made from 
porcelain, pottery, earthenware, and stoneware is not only remarkable for its variety, it 
is also probably the largest assemblage of its type in the world. This unusually large 
accumulation of netsuke illustrating the ceramic art of Japan includes examples from the 
main producing regions, mostly in the southern-most island, Kyushu, where the chief 
manufacturing center was in Arita in Hizen Province (Saga Prefecture). Much of the 
porcelain from Arita was exported to Europe from the nearby port of Imari at the end 
of the seventeenth century and became known as Imari porcelain, although the netsuke 
produced there were for domestic use. The Silverman collection includes a number of 
examples of Imari porcelain netsuke. 



The largest group of porcelain netsuke in the collection emanates from Hirado and was 
produced primarily during the late Edo period, about 1 820-60. These are mostly decorated 
in underglaze cobalt blue (sometsuke), a technique invented in China during the Yuan 
dynasty (1279-1368). It is possible to fairly accurately date a number of these, due 
to the fact that examples from the same molds were collected by Philip Franz von 
Siebold (1796-1866), whose collection is now housed in the National Museum 
of Ethnology, Leiden (see discussion of Von Siebold, p. 16). Documentary 
evidence of his collection exists, dating many of his netsuke to before 1830. 

Other notable categories of ceramic netsuke in the Silverman collection 
include celadon glazed netsuke, which, like the Hirado sometsuke, was also j 
a Chinese innovation; and earthenware, exemplified by the series of mask 
netsuke, derived from the facemasks used in No and Kyogen theater. 

It is a tribute to the Toledo Museum of Art that Richard Silverman has 
chosen to entrust his remarkable collection of ceramic netsuke to its care. 
Here, they will be studied, admired, and enjoyed by students, visitors, 
collectors, and other aficionados of the genre for generations to come. 

Neil K. Davey, London 




I 



Collecting Ceramic Netsuke: My Personal Journey 



was most fortunate to have been born and reared in Toledo. My family moved there 
from the Old Orchard neighborhood to the historic Old West End. I had grandparents living 
nearby, so I could easily visit family. I was also within walking distance of the Toledo 
Museum of Art, where I spent ten years taking free art classes on Saturday mornings. The 
Museum was an integral part of my life and greatly contributed to a wonderful childhood. 

I had Scott High School, Brandeis University, and the University of Michigan Law School 
on my resume when Uncle Sam interrupted my law studies and sent me to Korea for 
eighteen months in 1956-57. I was given one-week retreats to Japan every three months. 
Asia had never entered my mind, but now that I was there, I became fascinated with Asian 
customs and art. Because I showed such interest, when I was given my yearly one-month 
vacation, my parents treated me to a deluxe tour of all of Asia from Singapore to Bangkok, 
culminating in my twenty-fifth birthday in Tokyo for which my army buddies flew in from 
Korea. I was really getting hooked on Asia. 

In 1960 the Toledo Museum had a major exhibition from the National Museum of Thailand, 

and I became very good friends with the visiting curator and director. His Serene Highness 

M.C. Subhadradis Diskul, who stayed in Toledo for the three-month run of the show. I 

then knew that someday I wanted to live in Tokyo and/or Bangkok. The opportunity came 

in 1962 when President Kennedy started the Peace Corps. The second group was to go to 

Thailand. I quickly became a volunteer with a group studying at the University of Michigan. 

However, the Peace Corps followed the army's famous three hundred "disqualifying 

illnesses." Ulcers had not been a problem for me in the 1950s, but by '62 they were. After 

much discussion, I was allowed to finish the course with my fellow volunteers, but the Figure l A youn^ Richard Silverman 

day they flew off to Bangkok I drove home to Toledo. Since I had already said goodbye 

to my family's Kobacker Furniture Co., I went to Bangkok on my own in March 1962. 

What was to be a two-year stint in the Peace Corps turned into three and a half years in 

Bangkok followed by fifteen years in Tokyo. I was a college professor in both Thailand 

and Japan and my school year included two to three months of yearly vacation, during 

which I visited all of Southeast Asia and East Asia every year, sightseeing and collecting 

art. My interest in Western art, fostered by the TMA's superior collection, had not (and still 

has not) diminished, but by now my real love was all things Asian. 




Collecting Ceramic Netsuke 7 





Figure 2. Warrior and helmet, early 19th century. 
Wood with horn and stag antler inlays; H. 6.0 cm. 
Gift of Richard R. Silverman in memory of his 
brother Irwin Silverman, 2000.44a-b 



I had acquired a rather large collection of Thai and Southeast Asian paintings, carvings, 
and artifacts before moving from a large Thai house to a much smaller Tokyo apartment. 
But the collection bug had taken a firm hold, despite my lack of display space. In Japan I 
started with woodblock prints, fine oils, and folk craft pottery. It took only two years and 
my walls were completely full of prints and paintings and my shelves overflowing with 
every kind of ceramics. I still had my monthly University salary with a slight surplus, but 
no room left to display what I might buy. Then I saw my first netsuke. They were so small, 
diverse in materials — though mostly carved from ivory, wood, and stag antler — and they 
were reasonably priced. The finest were like miniature Michelangelos (Figure 2). I loved 
them all, from those made in the early seventeenth to eighteenth centuries to contempo- 
rary works. They were so easy to come by; I traveled the width and length of Japan to 
sightsee and find more netsuke. 

As with many collectors of Asian art I loved all masks, but especially Japanese masks. As 
my netsuke collection started to grow, I discovered that mask netsuke were easily found, 
and I have never stopped collecting them (Figure. 3). I also had a deep love for ceram- 
ics, but again, Japanese wares were my favorites. We in the West consider oil painting 
and sculpture to be the pinnacle of art. East Asians, however, put fine ceramics at the 
top, from earthenware to porcelain. The Japanese have always appreciated the unglazed 
earthenware found in the Mesolithic and Neolithic sites of the Jomon and Yayoi cultures. 
By the ninth century, Japanese clay styles showed advanced techniques, and by about 
1400, the different kilns were producing varying finishes and colors. The famous "Six 
Old Kilns" (Shigaraki, Tanba, Tokoname, Bizen, Echizen, and Seto) are still produc- 
ing ceramic pieces, and netsuke can be found from some of them. Japanese porcelain 
production began when the legendary Korean potter Ri Sanpei discovered a vast deposit 
of kaolin clay at Izumiyama, Kyushu in 1614. Pottery kilns still dot the entire landmass of 
Japan wherever clay can be found. 

Having this great love of ceramics and of netsuke, I was delighted to be able to combine 
them when I started to find some charming ceramic netsuke, most dating from the 
nineteenth century and with a preponderance from the Hirado kilns of Kyushu (near where 
Ri Sampei started). I have been seriously collecting ceramic netsuke for forty years now. 
I gave the Toledo Museum of Art my entire collection — all two hundred-plus pieces — in 
June 2009. Of the 500,000 netsuke of some merit that I have seen since I started collect- 
ing, probably 3,000 of them were ceramic. Due to earthquakes, wars, and the fragility of 
ceramic netsuke, it is quite certain that the vast majority of all ceramic netsuke have been 
broken or lost. Even so, clay was originally a rare material for netsuke (glass is rarer still; 
the Museum has my entire collection of twelve pieces. Figure 4). 



Figure 3. Mask ofFudo, Onko ware. Late 19th-early 
20th century. Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.290 
(Checklist p. 70) 



8 Collecting Ceramic Netsuke 



There is very little to be found in writing about ceramic netsuke, which makes this 
catalogue a valuable addition to the field. The first major text with any reference to netsuke 
of any material was the Soken Kisho written in 1781. Although it cites fifty-six famous 
netsuke carvers of that time, there is no mention of ceramics. There are many ceramic 
netsuke with signatures of very famous potters, but there is little substantial documented 
proof that these netsuke were actually made by said potters. Nor do we know for certain 
if they made unsigned netsuke, even as a hobby. Collectors accept these uncertainties 
and have gone so far as to say many signed pieces are spurious and not worth as much as 
"authentic," yet unsigned, netsuke. 

As far as is known, ceramic netsuke originally cost little to buy and had limited use for 
wearers. By the 1960s most ceramic netsuke were still relatively inexpensive. A great, 
signed eighteenth-century ivory or wood netsuke might have reached an astronomical-for- 
the-time $5,000 (today these same pieces can fetch many tens of thousands of dollars), but 
the finest ceramic netsuke rarely cost more than a few hundred dollars. As the years passed 
and the netsuke collection world found out that I and a handful of other well-known, 
mostly Japanese, collectors truly took ceramic netsuke seriously, the market has dried up. 
I seriously doubt if there are more than a few hundred great pieces to be had anywhere. 

A great part of my collection was bought from dealers in Japan, and most major world 
netsuke collectors have graciously allowed me to buy some of their finest ceramic pieces 
because they know of my particular love for them. Without all of these friends I never 
would have been able to amass what may be the finest ceramic netsuke collection in a 
museum today, although twenty-five to fifty of the world's best ceramic netsuke remain in 
the hands of private collectors. So these days I no longer look for the great ceramic pieces, 
but I still collect netsuke of every period and of all other materials. My mask netsuke 
collection continues to grow, along with all other varieties, and I can always visit and 
enjoy my ceramic netsuke in their new home in my hometown of Toledo, Ohio. 

Richard R. Silverman, Los Angeles 





Figure 4. Suigaraake netsuke, early to mid- 1 9th 
century. Satsuma glass with gilt bronze mount; 
Diam. 3.5 cm. Gift of Richard R. Silverman. 1984.102 

Figure 5. Richard Silverman at the Toledo Museum 
of Art, circa 2000. 



Collecting Ceramic Netsuke 9 



d 



A History of Ceramic Netsuke 



apanese netsuke — the jewelry-like toggles used to secure personal belongings to 
traditional dress — evolved from natural found objects like roots or shells into exquisite 
works of miniature sculpture, usually carved from wood, ivory, horn, or other natural 
materials (Figure 1). But with Japan having one of the oldest known and most fully 
developed traditions of ceramic production, it is no surprise that clay came to be used 
as a medium of netsuke production. Clay was first used as a novel material with which 
to create unusual and eye-catching accessories within the much larger field of netsuke. 
Later, as demand for netsuke increased, production of ceramic netsuke with the use of 
molds led to the development of a sub-genre of these miniature sculptural works that 
highlighted their exquisite fashionable nature. This later development manifested in the 
production of porcelain netsuke made of Hirado ware during the mid- to late nineteenth 
century at a turning point in the popularity of netsuke within domestic and, increasingly, 
foreign markets. 

It is also no surprise that these unusual objects captured the interest of avid netsuke collec- 
tor Richard R. Silverman, who has accumulated one of the largest known collections of 
ceramic netsuke in the world — now generously donated to the Toledo Museum of Art. 
One point of fascination for these charming objects is their incongruent combination of 
material (the relatively fragile medium of ceramics) and function (a utilitarian object that 
must withstand repeated, unprotected use). Despite these apparent limitations, this art 
form nevertheless developed an amazing breadth and sophistication of form and produc- 
tion. And while ceramic netsuke may represent only a minor part of the overall world of 
netsuke, which tends to emphasize and elevate carved examples, an analysis of ceramic 
netsuke production adds to the appreciation and brings about a greater understanding of 
the entire genre. 




The origin of Japanese netsuke 

The rise of the urban merchant class (choniri) during the Edo period (1615-1 868) provided 
unique practical and design requirements for the development of netsuke. The basic fact 
that the traditional Japanese dress, the kimono, had no structured pockets presented an 
opportunity for a creative solution for carrying personal possessions: to attach a variety 
of "hanging things," or sagemono, to one's body or outer clothing. The need for such a 
solution only intensified with the growing wealth from the seventeenth century onward, 
which precipitated the standardization of a national monetary system with newly minted 
gold, silver, and copper coins. In addition, the importation and spread of tobacco and 



Figure 1. Gama Seimin, 19th century. Ivory; 
H: 9.8 cm. Gift of H.A.Fee, 1948.162 

Facing page: Crouching shishi lion on a lotus 
pedestal, mid- 1 9th century, Hirado ware. 
Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.69 (Cat. 2) 



related smoking implements greatly intensified the need — and in many ways served 
as a catalyst for the netsuke market. The development of elaborate tiered cases (inro) 
that held medicines, seals, seal paste, and other small, personal objects, and the accom- 
panying refinement of netsuke occurred in concert with all these other elements of the 

sagemono ensemble. The prevalent form 
of the sagemeno ensemble most often 
included netsuke, inro, and ojime, a small 
bead fastener used to secure the hanging 
cords (Figure 2). In such an ensemble, the 
netsuke, fastened to the hanging cords, 
was strung behind and rested over the top 
of a garment's sash, or obi, to prevent the 
sagemono from sliding off. 





Figure 2. Eiraku Hozan (1795-1854). Inro and 
ojime, mid- 19th century. Porcelain; H. 4.9 cm. and 
Kagamibuta netsuke with figure in boat, mid- 19th 
century. Porcelain; Diam. 3.2 cm. Gift of Richard R. 
Silverman, 1991.78-79 and 1991.89 

Figure 3. (top right) China, Yuan dynasty (1280— 
1368). Pair of shoes, 1 3th century. Gift of Richard R. 
Silverman, 2009.67 (Checklist p. 56) 



Although netsuke were created with clear, identifiable characteristics that exhibit their 
utilitarian function, they developed into a highly sophisticated form of sculpture that was 
celebrated both in Japan and abroad. These defining elements included their small size, a 
smooth surface so as not to snag or catch on the obi and kimono fabric they were anchored 
against, and the inclusion of the himotoshi, or the standard two small holes through which 
the hanging cord could be strung. They were most often produced as distinctive sculp- 
tures carved out of a variety of natural materials including ivory, bone, wood, stag antler, 
and horn. In the nineteenth century, some artisans returned to the netsuke's origins by 
using found objects like gourds and roots. There are examples of netsuke fashioned in the 
celebrated aesthetic of wabi-sabi — which encapsulates the concepts of impermanence, 
nature, and the imperfect — in such diverse materials as pieces of coral, dog jaws, and 
even dried baby turtles. 1 

It is difficult to ascertain the exact origin of netsuke or netsuke-like toggles, though it is 
known with some certainty that they were prevalent in Japan by the end of the seventeenth 
century. There are many antecedents that support the idea that their utilitarian nature could 
be traced to similar items commonly used by the Mongol aristocrats in China, Persia, 
and Russia in the Yuan dynasty (1280-1368); the Manchu rulers of China, Mongolia, 
and Tibet in the Ch'ing dynasty (1644-1912); 2 and even Hungarian shepherds during 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 1 Some of these early works were even made of 
ceramic (Figure 3). But it is in the development and artistry of the Japanese netsuke that 
the form reached its creative zenith, and which these other forms are most readily defined 
by and compared against in modern scholarship. Whether called the chui-tzu in China, or 
the pasztorkeszseg in Hungary, their translation, definition, and discourse are most often 
contextualized by the highly studied and cherished art form of Japanese netsuke (formed 
from the kanji characters "ne" meaning "root" and "(siike" meaning "to attach"). 4 



.2 A History of Ceramic Netsuke 




Figure 4. Kubo Shunman ( 1 757-1 820), Surimono of 
Tobacco Pouch and Pipe, 1813. Color woodblock 
print. H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Bequest of Mrs. 
H. O. Havemeyer, 1929, The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, JP1954 



Expanding the netsuke market 

The Edo period saw an unprecedented growth in the urban centers of 
Edo (present-day Tokyo), Kyoto, and Osaka. During this time, a rich 
and vibrant urban culture (chonin bunka) developed that called for 
new, varied uses for netsuke in an increasingly materialistic society. 
While the netsuke served as an anchor from which to suspend with a 
cord various sagemono — like coin purses (kinchaku), tiered medicine 
containers (inro), pouches to hold tobacco (tobako-ire or doran), and 
traditional smoking pipes (kiseru) and pipe cases (kiseru-zutsu) — it 
is its evolution as intricate "fashion accessory" that brought it to 
prominence. 5 Even though the ruling Tokugawa shogunate espoused 
a ranked social hierarchy from high to low of samurai warriors, 
agricultural workers, artisans, and merchants (shi-no-ko-sho) that 
was to provide a strict structure for social order and control, the lived 
realities in the urban centers often kept this hierarchy off balance and 
even inverted at times. The growing wealth and economic power 
of the thriving merchant class exaggerated and often intensified the 
declining fortune and importance of the warrior class, which struggled 
to find relevance in a time of relative peace. 



As the merchants rose in prominence and wealth, members of this 
lowest social class looked for ways to openly express their growing 
prosperity and sophistication in the various arts and urban culture of 
the period, as rendered in privately published woodblock prints, or 
surimono (Figure 4). There was a notable rise in "urban chic" (iki) 
among city dwellers. 6 Fashion played a major role in this, with the 
wealthiest members of the merchant class often setting the standards 
of style and acting as the harbingers of taste. 7 The choice and combi- 
nation of netsuke with garments and associated sagemono often held 
particular poetic meanings that were at times directly associated with 
the ensembles (see combination of poetry and image in Figure 4) and 
revealed much about the sophistication and position of the wearer. 
As discrepancies grew in theoretical versus lived experiences of the 
social hierarchies in urban centers, the Tokugawa shogunate attempt- 
ed to regulate the situation by issuing various sumptuary edicts 
throughout the Edo period. These included "laws regulating expendi- 
tures {ken 'yakurei)" % such as were part of the Tenpo Reforms of the 
early 1840s, which attempted to curb overt displays of wealth and to 
reinstate the moral ideal of frugality. Although the edicts were often 



A History of Ceramic Netsuke 




loosely enforced, the threat — and the occasional severe occurrence — 
of punishment made adherence to the laws advisable. However, unlike 
other aspects of rich urban culture, such as woodblock prints (ukivo-e), 
clothing and textiles, and hairstyles, the later edicts overlooked, for 
the most part, netsuke and sagemono — especially tobacco and related 
implements." Consequently, the use and production of these objects 
went greatly unregulated, allowing the market for them to grow and 
prosper (Figure 5). 

An entire industry was created around these miniature sculptures, and 
by the late eighteenth century there was an identifiable group of profes- 
sional netsuke carvers, or netsukeshi, that produced work to meet the 
demand. In 1 78 1 , a seven-volume set titled Soken Kisho (Appreciation 
of Superior Sword Furnishings) by Inaba Tsuryu (1736-1786) includ- 
ed in its final volume a list of nearly sixty professional netsuke carvers 
who were active around the time of its publication and making a living 
solely through the creation of netsuke.'" A vibrant market developed in 
the subsequent century that was filled with diverse works that ranged 
in levels of preciousness to meet the desires and economic levels of 
a varied clientele, from wealthy merchants and high-ranking samurai 
to ordinary urbanites and peasant farmers. Fine sagemono ensembles 
of netsuke, inro, and ojime, as well as tobacco implements and other 
elaborate cloth and leather pouches, also became customary parts 
of the ceremonial dress (kamishimo) of the samurai and wealthy 
merchants. This ceremonial dress was worn during official events and 
festivals all over Japan, as depicted in the woodblock print design by 
Yoshu Chikanobu (1838-1912) showing the Sanno Festival in Tokyo 
(Figure 6). 



Figure 5. Tobacco pouch and pipe with case, 18th 
century. Dutch embossed leather with silver foil and 
color, gold, silver, and fresh water pearl. Bequest of 
Benjamin Altman, 1913, The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, 14.40.843a,b 

Figure 6 (opposite). Yoshu Chikanobu ( 1838-1912), 
Parody of the Twelve Zodiac Animals: Monkey, 
Minami Denmacho Parade Float (Mitale junishi: 
Saru, Minami Denmacho hanagaruma), 20 August 
1893. Color woodblock print. Aoki Endowment 
Collection, Scripps College SC2005. 1 .52 



As market demand continued to grow, so did the number of media 
for and makers of netsuke. Artisans from other industries, including 
lacquerers, metal workers, and ceramists, joined in the production 
to take advantage of this burgeoning market and the desire for ever 
more diverse and unusual works. As the center of netsuke produc- 
tion moved from the Kansai region cities of Kyoto and Osaka to the 
political center and dominant urban center of Edo, shops that special- 
ized in netsuke and related products began to take a prominent place 
in the city landscape. The 1824 printed book Guide for Independent 
Shopping in Edo (Edo kaimono hitori annai) lists specialty shops by 
type that include netsuke and "pouch-thing-shops" (fukuromonoya). u 



A History of Ceramic Netsuke 




The late nineteenth century brought two devastating blows to the netsuke market: the 
Meiji Restoration of 1868 with Japan's ambitious efforts to modernize, and the importa- 
tion of cigarettes, which largely replaced loose tobacco and pipes. While netsuke produc- 
tion continued, social dynamics radically changed the demand, use, and market for the 
objects. The Meiji Restoration ended the ruling military government of the Tokugawa 
shogunate and restored the emperor as the divine leader. With the restoration, a concerted 
effort of rapid modernization was enacted to bring Japan on par with its Western counter- 
parts. Government officials, military, and the elite were expected to embrace Western 
dress and forego ceremonial traditional dress, along with accoutrements like netsuke and 
inro. This shift in ceremonial protocol was accompanied by the elimination of overt public 
recognition of the samurai class. The impact on these major markets for netsuke greatly 
diminished the domestic demand. Add the importation of rolled tobacco and the subse- 
quent decline in use of loose tobacco pouches and distinctive traditional pipes (kiseru), 
and in many ways it would seem that the netsuke market had come to a rather abrupt end. 
Fortunately, this was not the case. 



Countering this rapid decline, netsuke found a new, expansive market in the growing 
tourist and export trade. Foreigners had been enchanted by and known to collect netsuke 
purely as objets d'art since the early nineteenth century. Included in the almost seven 
thousand objects brought back to Europe by the German physician Philipp Franz 
Balthasar von Siebold (1796-1866), stationed in Japan in two separate periods during 
the years of 1823-29, was a collection of netsuke made of Hirado ware (including a 
version of a Gama Sennin figure in the Silverman Collection; Figure 7). 12 Another known 
early incidence of a foreigner acquiring netsuke involved a crewmember of Commodore 
Matthew Perry (1794-1858), who was presented in 1853 "with an exquisite netsuke of a 
stage mask" from Miyakawa Kozaburo (dates unknown), an official of the shogunate who 
subsequently opened a trading company named Sanko that specifically exported netsuke 
and other works of art. 13 Realizing the importance of this new foreign clientele, there were 
a number of workshops in Edo and beyond that began to produce netsuke specifically 
for export focusing not on their utilitarian role, but instead on their detailed narrative 
subject matter. 14 The small, transportable size of netsuke, their exotic subjects of Japanese 
mythology and customs, and their exquisite craftsmanship made them perfect souvenirs 
and collectibles. Furthermore, Japan's participation in the World's Fairs (Philadelphia in 
1876 and Paris in 1878) and foreign interest in its highly developed export porcelain 
markets greatly increased the demand for antique and new netsuke — including ceramic 
examples — in the international market, which enthusiastically embraced them as art 
objects worthy of collecting and connoisseurship. 



Figure 7. Gama Senmn with articulated toad head 
in sleeve, early 19th century. Hirado ware. Gift of 
Richard R. Silverman, 2009.102 (Cat. 12) 



A History of Ceramic Netsuke 



Ceramic netsuke come into their own 

Historically, the very survival of netsuke balanced on the edge of being outmoded and 
outdated. Throughout its evolution from functional fashion accessory to collectible sculp- 
ture, the netsuke's role, its artists and craftsmen, and its end users — including collec- 
tors — all continued strategically, if not serendipitously, to adapt in order to maintain a 
high level of relevancy in an expanding international marketplace. The growing emphasis 
on the creation of ceramic netsuke in the nineteenth century not only greatly assisted in 
this ongoing evolution, but also in many ways has helped to maintain a certain vitality and 
interest essential to the continued creation of the art form. 

Although ceramic netsuke were made in some number during the late eighteenth and 
early nineteenth century, their manufacture proliferated in the mid- to late nineteenth 
century, most notably with the development of netsuke composed of Hirado porcelain. 
While craftsmen from other industries, such as lacquerers and metal smiths, were known 
to try their hand at creating for the high-demand netsuke market (Figure 8), it was the 
Hirado porcelain works that exploited netsuke production to the fullest. The use of molds 
allowed ceramic netsuke to be created in large numbers compared to the time-consuming 
process of carving individual pieces from ivory, wood, bone, or other materials. This point 
became critically important for replacing the supply of netsuke after the devastating fire 
that followed the 1855 Ansei Edo earthquake, which destroyed much of the urban center. 
The use of colorful glazes and additional hand carving added to the individualistic appeal 
and novel look of these small ceramic sculptures. The use and permanence of polychrome 
glazes on the netsuke solved the problem raised by Inaba Tsuryu in Soken Kisho during 
his discussion of the Osaka netsuke carver Yoshimura Shiizan (1700-1773). Shuzan was 
celebrated for his skillful application of color (saishiki), but his popularity waned due to 
the fact that the color would wear off his painted netsuke of carved wood. 15 




Ceramic netsuke have been dated to the early eighteenth century, as represented by the 
pottery work of celebrated artisan Ogawa Haritsu (1663-1747; see Cat. 34). From this 
early period, the ceramic medium does not appear to be in wide use for netsuke; extant 
examples are few, perhaps also due to their relatively fragile nature. As the decades 
passed, examples of netsuke made in ceramics became more numerous due in part to the 
medium's advantageous plasticity, its unusual visual appeal, and the growing prominence 
of ceramic artists. The nineteenth century saw ceramic netsuke come into their own, with 
dynamic and sophisticated examples that rivaled sculptural netsuke carved from ivory 
or wood. Particularly important was the medium's enviable ability to be reproduced. 
Through the use of molds, multiple examples of a single design could be created (see, for 
example, Cat. 9, 21, and 23). By the late nineteenth century, the production of porcelain 
netsuke made of Hirado ware became something of an industry in itself, which supplied 
an abundance of works that showcased dramatic visual results. 



Figure 8. Manju netusuke with toys and sword, 
19th century. Lacquer; Diam. 4.0 cm. Gift of H.A. 
Fee, 1950.113 



A History of Ceramic Netsuke 




Ceramic netsuke and the rise of Hirado porcelain 

The history of Japanese ceramics can be traced back to the Neolithic period during the 
eleventh millennium B.C.E. Ceramics is an art and craft that has always been held in the 
highest regard in Japan, so much so that Japan has developed and constantly nurtured 
a thriving ceramic industry for centuries. Its celebrated potters, like Nonomura Ninsei 
(1574-1666), Ogata Kenzan (1663-1743), and Aoki Mokubei (1767-1833), are revered 
not only in Japan, but also recognized and collected internationally. It is only natural 
that something as prized and specifically Japanese as netsuke would include pieces made 
partly or wholly of ceramics. With an elaborate network of ceramic kilns and workshops 
that developed during the Edo period, the ceramic industry grew and prospered in tandem 
with netsuke production. 

Many of the principal types of ceramics produced during the nineteenth century have been 
directly associated with netsuke production, including the major types of Kyoto ware and 
Hirado ware — Kyoto and Hirado are the most prominent type of ceramic netsuke with 
the largest number of extant examples — and the minor types of Edo ware, Raku ware, 
Banko ware, Onko ware, and porcelain in the style of Kutani ware, Satsuma ware, Arita 
ware, and Imari ware (examples of all of these styles are represented in the Silverman 
collection). While some pieces can clearly be linked to a specific type, kiln, or artist, 
many works lack clear identification. The complicating factors include the abundance 
of kilns active during the Edo period (close to ten thousand); the common practice of 
kilns shipping clay to distant areas of Japan; and the increased mobility of artisans and 
prominent styles of ceramic production between kilns. During the nineteenth century, 
workshops developed that created netsuke to resemble or have characteristics of specific 
ceramic styles that were produced at other regional kilns. Sometimes these workshops 
included artists' names on their netsuke to associate them with a celebrated potter, adding 
to the work's market appeal (see, for example, Cat. 9). A major difficulty with all netsuke, 
both ceramic and carved examples, is that signatures, seals, and styles were relatively 
easy to copy and replicate, often making a definitive identification extremely difficult. To 
further complicate identification, the bourgeoning market for netsuke in Japan included 
the appearance of works that were produced in China for the Japanese market (Cat. 40). 16 
But even with these complicated circumstances, distinctive groupings may be established 
that bring about a deeper understanding about this greatly overlooked area of the art of 
netsuke. 



Figure 9. Seifu Yohei III (1851-1914) Standing 
Okame, late 19th century. Kyoto ware. Gift of 
Richard R. Silverman, 2009.122 (Checklist p. 65) 



Kyoto was considered a major center for ceramic production, with many styles and 
artists identified with its surrounding kilns and workshops. One of the most prominent 
styles was the rustic Raku ceramics that was established for use in the tea ceremony in 
the sixteenth century by the tea master Sen no Rikyu (1522-1591) and the tile maker 
Sasaki Chojiro (1516-1592). Their distinctive style continued through the family lineage 



18 A History of Ceramic Netsuke 



of potters that took the Raku name and with other ceramists that created the popular 
wares (Cat. 30 and 31). High-fired ceramics and porcelain works were also produced 
in Kyoto from the seventeenth century. These ceramic pieces were most often painted 
with overglaze enamel pigments and made expressly for the domestic market. Unlike 
many of the porcelain ceramic netsuke produced in the distant area of Kyushu, many 
of the pieces of Kyoto ware were signed or sealed, identifying them with a specific 
artisan or ceramist's style. A number of these potters achieved varying degrees of fame, 
and an inclusion of a seal or signature supports the idea that their name was a desirable 
selling point in the netsuke market. The styles varied greatly, and the works included 
blue-and-white (sometsuke) by artists like Nin'ami Dohachi, (1783-1855; Cat. 23); the 
porcelain works of Eiraku Tokuzen (1853-1909; Cat. 21); the earthenware works of Seifu 
Yohei III (1851-1914; Figure 9) the varied styles by Mashimizu Zoroku (1822-1877; 
Cat. 47); and the playful works of the Wahei workshop that created colorful glazed pieces 
during the late nineteenth century in the style of the Shiwan (Shekwan) kilns of China 
(Cat. 26). 

Edo (present-day Tokyo), as the seat of the Tokugawa shogunate and the largest mercan- 
tile center in Japan, also saw the establishment of its own workshops and kilns within the 
city as well as in surrounding areas. The classification of "Edo ware" does not describe 
specific styles of ceramic production, but rather is used in contradistinction to the varied 
and prolific production of Kyoto ware. Although Edo kilns do not have the history or 
prominence of those in Kyoto, they boasted many known artisans, who were brought to 
Edo to produce ceramic work. Many of these artisans excelled at the art of ceramics and 
created netsuke in one of the private garden or temple kilns that were prevalent in Edo. 
Some of the most prolific ceramic netsuke artists worked in and around Edo, including the 
eighteenth-century artisan Ogawa Haritsu, and the later ceramists Miura Kenya (1821- 
1889) and Kawamoto Teiji (active mid- 19th century). Netsuke pieces by these later artists 
are well represented in the Silverman collection, suggesting they had a prominent role in 
the netsuke market and were well known as ceramic artists. Miura Kenya, also known as 
Kenzan V after Ogata Kenzan from whom he took his style, started making pottery at the 
Chomeiji Temple in the Mukojima area of Tokyo in 1 875 after he finished professions as 
a shipbuilder, a brick-maker, and a creator of clay dolls. He studied painting under Tani 
Buncho (1763-1840), as well as lacquer techniques.' 7 His style and approach is traced to 
Ogata Kenzan in his use of overglaze enamel decoration (Figure 10). His refined, highly 
detailed work often utilized various media, including pearl inlays (Cat. 35). Kawamoto 
Teiji worked primarily in Edo at the Kaisuien Garden kiln on the grounds of the Edo 
residence of Matsudaira Yoshitake, the feudal lord of the Takasu domain (present-day 
Gifu Prefecture). 18 His netsuke were unusual in that he would often combine the medium 
of ceramics with wood. These combination works were inventive and diverse, making 
them a favorite with netsuke collectors (Figure 1 1 ). 




Figure 10. Miura Kenya (1821-1889) Cylinder with 
image of Fukiirokuju, late 19th century. Edo ware. 
Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.143 
(Checklist p. 56) 



A History of Ceramic Netsuke 




The most prominent form of ceramic netsuke came from the porcelain 
kilns at Mikawachi in the Hirado domain on the island of Kyushu. 
The work produced there became known by the name of Hirado ware. 
Rich deposits of kaolin clay, the main component of porcelain, were 
discovered in the area. This vicinity included the establishment of 
other prominent kilns like Arita. Hirado porcelain was first produced 
in 1622 under the patronage of the feudal lord (daimyo) of Hirado, 
Matsuura Takanobu (1591-1637). His son and successor Matsuura 
Chinshin (1613-1703) was a cultured man recognized for the estab- 
lishment of his own school of tea ceremony called the "warriors' tea 
ceremony," or Chinshin-ryu. He also greatly expanded the kiln to 
produce high quality porcelain work for private use and diplomatic 
gifts. By the nineteenth century, the then current daimyo Matsuura 
Seizan ( 1 760-1 84 1 ) began focusing production to match his own inter- 
ests, which included a celebrated collection of sagemono ensembles 
composed of inro, netsuke, and ojime beads. His published journal 
from 1821-41, titled Tales Begun on the Night of the Rat {Kasshi 
yawd), detailed his exploits and priviledged life while stationed in Edo 
as part of the shogunate's system of "alternate attendance" (sankin 
kotai). 19 He wrote: 



While I was serving in the government I began to be fond of 
accessories that hung from the waist and eventually I became 
a collector .... Since I was continually changing my acces- 
sories, I developed a reputation for eccentricity .... I had over 
one hundred sets of inro and other accessories. 20 



Seizan goes on to detail from memory thirty-six ensembles, with full 
descriptions of both subject and medium, that were lost in a fire at his 

residence. 



Figure 1 1. Kawamoto Teiji (active mid- 19th century), 
Frog on a loins pod, mid- 19th century. Edo ware. 
Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.1 50 
(Checklist p. 57) 



By the second half of the nineteenth century, as the Matsuura family's 
fortune declined and the sagemono-enthusiast Seizan passed away, 
they restructured the porcelain kiln to be self-sufficient, completely 
withdrawing official patronage in 1843. This caused a major shift in 
production from private use for the feudal lord to an industry that 
functioned as a profit-making organization. Even though netsuke of 
Hirado ware were produced and have been dated to the early 1800s, 
their overall numbers greatly increased in the mid- and late nineteenth 
century. 21 While it is difficult to ascertain the total numbers of Hirado 



A History of Ceramic Netsuke 



ware netsuke produced during this period, some estimates place it as high as tens of 
thousands of netsuke per year. 22 Even at more conservative numbers, netsuke production 
at these levels supports the premise that they were being created for an ever-growing 
international market. 

Hirado netsuke were able to be produced in such large numbers because they were 
manufactured extensively through the use of multi-part molds. Once the molded parts 
were joined together, the netsuke would be additionally worked by carving and the appli- 
cation of glazes to diversify the finished works. Early Hirado ware netsuke were painted 
with clear glaze to showcase the purity of the white porcelain or glazed with a limited 
palette of blue, brown, celadon, and black. There were also examples utilizing a dark or 
light ivory-colored glaze (sometimes referred to erroneously as "unglazed") that was then 
stained with a dark brown or black, which gave the surface the appearance of carved ivory 
or wood (for a striking comparison see Figure 1 and Figure 12). This allusion was further 
promoted by the inclusion of signatures or seals that could be associated with prominent 
netsuke carvers. By the second half of the nineteenth century, polychrome glazes and 
enamels were also used. In addition, one of the most distinctive elements of Hirado porce- 
lain netsuke was the use of mechanism {karakuri), or moving parts (see Figure 7). These 
colorful and playful details of the Hirado netsuke greatly added to their charm, novelty, 
and market appeal both in Japan and abroad. 

The appeal of porcelain netsuke has continued through the twentieth century and now 
into the twenty-first century, and has even found a contemporary outlet for the contin- 
ued creation of these miniature sculptures, not only in Japan but also abroad. Recent 
exhibitions, including one at the Museum of Arts and Design in New York in 2007, have 
focused on contemporary production and showcased the truly international nature of 
netsukeshi. 23 The Silverman collection includes two such contemporary porcelain netsuke 
by American artists Armin Muller (1932-2000) and Lynn Richardson (b. 1942), whose 
work appeared in the New York exhibition as testament to the enduring legacy of these 
enchanting objects and their makers' chosen medium of porcelain (Figures 13 and 14). 




*LL— ~ 



Reappraising ceramic netsuke 

As we have seen, although netsuke made in whole or in part of ceramic were known 
to have been created in Japan from the early periods of netsuke production during the 
eighteenth century, it was originally considered a novel medium for these fashionable 
and high-demand objects. But toward the end of the nineteenth century the production 
of porcelain netsuke in the form of Hirado ware grew in prominence, as netsuke artists 
catered increasingly to an international market for souvenirs and objets d'art. Hirado 
porcelain netsuke produced in multiples mirrored in many ways the burgeoning market 



Figure 12. Gama Sennin holding a basket and load. 
mid- 19th century. Hirado ware. Gift of Richard R. 
Silverman, 2009. 174 (Cat. 12) 



A History of Ceramic Netsuke 



< 



of ukiyo-e woodblock prints and their relationship to paintings. Contemporary response 
and historical analysis have often diminished ceramic netsuke in importance and position 
vis-a-vis unique carved works of art, just as woodblock prints made in multiples were 
historically underappreciated in Japan and considered inferior to original paintings. But 
like woodblock prints, Hirado porcelain netsuke became their own unique art form requir- 
ing their own specialized appreciation. Ceramic netsuke in all forms have often been 
overshadowed by their carved counterparts, which has lead to the occasional erroneous 
claim that netsuke are exclusively an art of carved sculpture. Richard R. Silverman's 
collection of ceramic netsuke brings to life their diverse and creative appeal, highlighting 
the breadth of style and subject, the beauty, and the dynamism of these miniature ceramic 
works. Though an often-neglected category of Japanese art, the richness and diversity of 
Mr. Silverman's collection is testament to the historical and artistic importance of these 
adornments in clay. 




Figure 13. Armin Muller, Carp, 1999. Glazed 
porcelain. Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.107 
(Checklist p. 71) 

Figure 14. Lynn Richardson, Persimmon, 2009. 
Arita ware. Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.66 
(Checklist p. 71) 



A History of Ceramic Netsuke 



Notes 

I For examples of these see Matthew Welch and Sharen Chappell, Netsuke: The Japanese Art of Miniature Carving 
(Minneapolis: The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 1999), cat nos. 179 and 186. 

: Schuyler Cammann, Substance and Symbol in Chinese Toggles ( 'hinese Belt Toggles from the C F. Bieber 

Collection (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1962), 16. 

' Denis Szeszler, "In Search of the 'Hungarian Netsuke'," Netsuke Kenkyukai, Vol. 8, No. 4 (Winter 1988): 26-29. 

4 The origin of the term "netsuke" is a problematic one that includes precedents of other similar-meaning terms like 
kara (written in multiple combinations of kanji characters that denote various origins and relationships to Buddhism, 
as well as to China) and kesa (a similar Buddhist toggle). The term netsuke was known to have been commonly used 
by the eighteenth century and is thought to originate as reference to found roots that served as early versions. 

5 The concept of netsuke as primarily a fashion accessory is promoted by Joe Earle in Netsuke: Fantasy and Reality 
in Japanese Miniature Sculpture (Boston: MFA Publications, 2001 ), 17-21. 

6 Eiko Ikegami, Bonds of Civility: Aesthetic Networks and Political Origins of Japanese Culture (New York: 
Cambridge University Press, 2005). 279-85. 

" F. M. Jonas, Netsuke (Rutland, Vermont: Turtle, 1960) 20. 

8 Donald H. Shively, "Sumptuary Regulation and Status in Early Tokugawa Japan," Harvard Journal of Asiatic 
Studies, Vol. 25 (1964-65): 123-164. 

9 Tobacco and smoking implements had originally been the target of sumptuary edicts in 1609, but those were 
repealed in 1716 by the shogunate as tobacco and its cultivation was seen as a way to help stimulate the economy. 
From the eighteenth century, tobacco pouches, pipes, pipe cases, and netsuke became a dominant mode of open 
displays of wealth and sophistication. See Barbara Okada. Japanese Netsuke and Ojime: from the Herman and Paul 
Jaehne Collection of the Newark Museum (Newark: Newark Museum Association, 1 976), 4. 

10 Nihon Netsuke Kenkyukai, Netsuke: gyoshukusareta Edo bunka [Netsuke: Condensed Culture ofEdo] (Tokyo: 
Bijutsu Shuppansha, 2005), 14, 17-18. 

II For more on the specific shops and specialties see Patrizia Jirka-Schmitz, Netsuke: The Trumpf Collection 
(Stuttgart: Arnoldsche, 2000), 39-41 . 

12 His collection, which included sixteen porcelain netsuke made of Hirado ware, is now housed in The National 
Museum of Ethnology in Lieden. See Louis Lawrence, Hirado: Prince of Porcelain (Chicago: Art Media Resources, 
Ltd., 1997), 96. 
"Okada, Netsuke, 32-41. 

14 Jirka-Schmitz (2000), 49. 

15 Jirka-Schmitz (2000), 27-29. 

16 See the discussion for cat. nos. 12 and 447 in Raymond Bushell, Netsuke Familiar and Unfamiliar: New Principals 
for Collecting (New York: Weatherhill, 1975), 91 and 447; Raymond Bushell, "Ceramic Netsuke," Arts of Asia, 

March-April (1976): 28; and F. A. Turk, "The Porcelain Pekingese-Chin: Study of a New Netsuke Type," Apollo; 

v. 7, no. 424, June (1960): 179-80. 

" Louis Frederic, Japan Encyclopedia (Boston: Harvard University Press, 2005), 647. 

18 Raymond Bushell, Collectors 'Netsuke (New York: Weatherhill, 1974), 166 

19 "Alternate attendance" was a system enforced by the Tokugawa shogunate of requiring the feudal lords (daimyo) 
to reside several months of each year in the Tokugawa capital at Edo. When the lords would return to their provinces, 
they were required to leave their wives and families in Edo as hostage to ensure allegiance to the shogun. 

20 A portion of this text is translated in Appendix 2 in Andrew J. Pekarik, Japanese Lacquer, 1600-1900: Selections 
from the Charles A. Greenfield Collection (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1980), 124-26. 

21 David Hyatt King, "Early 19th Century Porcelain Netsuke in the National Museum of Ethnology, Leiden," Andon 
30 (1988): 91-98. 

22 Ibid., 96. 

23 The exhibition included more than one hundred contemporary netsuke by Japanese and international artists. 
Contemporary Netsuke: Masterful Miniatures was guest curated by Terry Satsuki Milhaupt and held from January 25 
through June 1 7, 2007 at the Museum of Arts and Design, New York. 



A History of Ceramic Netsuke 



Selected Highlights 

from the Richard R. Silverman ceramic netsuke collection 



1. Rat 

Early 19th century 

Hirado ware; glazed porcelain, H. 3.0 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.68 

Provenance: Virginia G. Atchley 



The twelve animals of the East 

Asian zodiac cycle (jikkan jiinishi) 

were popular subjects for Japanese 

artists and a major theme in netsuke. 

The animals were associated with 

yearly periods that rotated during 

every sixty-year cycle, and each 

period was endowed with attributes of its given animal. The twelve 

animals in order of their cyclical occurrence are: rat, ox, tiger, hare, 

dragon, snake, horse, sheep, monkey, rooster, dog, and boar. The 

rat (nezumi), the first zodiac animal in the cycle, is characterized 

by abundance and wealth in reproduction and food. This exquisite 

Hirado ware netsuke is simply rendered in clear-glazed porcelain, 

which showcases the purity of the clay. 



The shishi lion was a mythical animal 
that became known as the defender 
of the Buddhist faith. This connec- 
tion is reinforced by the placement 
of the shishi on a Buddhist lotus 
pedestal. The shishi was also the 
symbol of strength and courage, and 

was often associated with a warrior- 

like lifestyle. The elaborate carving 

of the clay of this netsuke is accentuated by the use of carefully 

applied glazes. 



2. Crouching shishi lion 
on a lotus pedestal 

Mid- 19th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, blue, 

brown, and celadon glazes, H. 3.4 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.69 

Provenance: Ann Swedlow Meselson 



Selected Highlights 25 




3. Frog on mushroom 
cap 

Mid- 19th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, blue, black, and 

brown glazes, H. 2.5 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.70 

Provenance: Otto Heinrich Noetzel 



The frog is an auspicious symbol 
and a harbinger of spring. It appears 
often in art and literature with an 
easily parodied name in Japanese, 
kaeru, which also means "to return." 
Representations are often used in 
mercantile settings to symbolize the 

desire for return customers. In this 

piece, the glazed porcelain frog is shown sitting on a circular mush- 
room cap glazed in blue. The frog's face is fully delineated, which 
gives it a humorous, human-like demeanor. 




4. European trade ship 

Mid- 19th century 

Inscribed: Kotobuki ("good fortune") and Shonzui 

(Chinese-style blue-and-white ware) 

Hirado ware; porcelain with clear glaze and blue 

underglaze, H. 4.4 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.74 

Provenance: Virginia G. Atchley 



Nanban, or "southern barbarians," 
were a prominent subject in Japanese 
art since the arrival of the Portuguese 
in the sixteenth century. This 
European trade ship with its distinc- 
tive mast symbolizes foreign trade 
and the exotic nature of imported 
products and cultures. The work is 
inscribed with the auspicious char- 
acter kotobuki, which means "good fortune," a common sentiment 
exchanged during the New Year. The inscribed characters for shon- 
zui reference an historical style of Chinese blue-and-white porcelain 
produced during the Ming period (1368-1644). 



26 Selected Highlights 



Japanese erotica (shunga) was a 
vibrant genre in the field of wood- 
block prints (ukiyo-e). Given the 
strong relationship of subjects and 
themes between ukiyo-e and netsuke, 
it is unsurprising that artists would 
create netsuke with erotic subjects. 
Of course, the public nature of wear- 
ing netsuke on one's outer garment 
made it necessary for the eroticism to 

be subtle and understated. In this piece, a nude, amorous couple is 
rendered inside a cracked eggshell that obstructs a clear view of the 
scene. The presence of an octopus is a common theme in Japanese 
erotica made famous in the visual arts in part by the illustration 
by the artist Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849) of Pearl Diver with 
Octopi from the 1814 book Young Pines (Kinoe no komatsu). 



5. Amorous couple and 

octopus inside cracked 

eggshell 

Mid- 19th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, bisque, 

brown, and gray glazes, L. 4.2 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.72 

Provenance: Adele Murphy 




This manju netsuke (a type usually of 
the thick, round shape that resembles 
a sweet rice cake of the same name) 
features a complete set of the twelve 
animals of the East Asian zodiac. 
The animals are organized in a circle 
and are rendered in relief with multi- 
color glazes. The characters for the 
four cardinal directions are included 

in the middle of the circle {kita, minami, higashi, nishi) and repre- 
sent the association of specific zodiac animals with the directions: 
the rat represents due north, with each 30-degree movement clock- 
wise representing a subsequent animal. 



6. Twelve zodiac animals 

with the four cardinal 

directions 

Mid- 19th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, blue, 

brown, and gray glazes, Diam. 3.2 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.75 




Selected Highlights 27 




7. Monkey- faced SanbaSO The sanbaso dancer originated in die 

dancer with articulated 
head and tongue 



ninth century and was performed at 
the start of No (and later Kabuki) 
dramas. The dance was to mollify the 
gods who might be angered by errors 
that occur during the theater perfor- 
mances. The traditional costume 
of a sanbaso dancer includes a fan, 
suzu bells, and a tall cap with red 
circles to denote the sun and stripes 
to represent the months of the year. 
The indigenous snow monkeys, or 
saru, were highly regarded by the 
Japanese and thought to be messen- 
gers of the Shinto gods. Their depic- 
tion in human-like activities like 
dancing for the gods was common in 
art and literature. These two humor- 
ous depictions utilize the highly marketable sculptural technique of 
karakuri ("mechanism") to include a moveable head and tongue. 



Mid- 19th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, bisque, bl 

and brown glazes, H. 8.9 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.170 



Monkey-faced sanbaso 
dancer with articulated 
head and tongue 

Early 19th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with bisque, blue, 

and brown glazes, H. 6.4 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.80 




8. Shishimai Child dancer Originating in China, the shishimai 

holding a lion mask rlion dance ") is P erformed for 

Buddhist and Shinto festivals and 
Early 19th century Ngw Year ce]ebrations . Although 

Huado ware; porcelain wilh clear, blue, . . . , 

brown, and black glazes, H. 7.0 cm g rown men originally performed 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.86 the shishimai, depictions of children 

dancers became common in the 
nineteenth century. This version in 
porcelain with limited color glazes is one of the finest known examples 
of the subject in ceramic netsuke and features the idealized Japanese 
representation of a child: the karako — a Chinese boy with distinctive 
tufts of hair and wearing a traditional pantsuit. The open mouth of the 
lion includes a loose porcelain ball, representing a sacred Buddhist 
jewel, or tama, that is associated with wisdom. The fierce face of the 
mythical lion is in stark contrast to the angelic face of the smiling boy. 



28 Selected Highlights 




These three similar versions of the same shishimai ("lion dance") child dancer 
demonstrate the mass-produced nature of ceramic netsuke, which were often 
made with a mold and then finished with hand carving and painting. The three 
colorful netsuke also suggest that the subject had strong market appeal (see also 
Cat. 8). The yellow mask and green mask versions came from the same mold of 
Hirado ware, differing primarily in the application of finishing glazes. The red 
mask version is from a different mold and includes gold enamel, which suggests 
it was created at a kiln in the Kyoto area, rather than at the Hirado kiln that 
produced the other two. A seal under its knee reads Ninsei, associating the piece 
with Kyoto-based ceramist Nonomura Ninsei (active about 1646-1694). The 
appropriation of the name of a celebrated artist from the past provides evidence 
that connecting a work with specific artists had become a marketing tool in the 
competitive netsuke field. 



9. Shishimai child dancer 
lifting a lion mask 
(red mask) 

Late 1 9th century 

Sealed: Ninsei (after Nonomura Ninsei, active about 

1646-1694) 

Kyoto ware; porcelain with polychrome overglazes 

and gold enamel, H. 5.5 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.83 

Shishimai child dancer 
lifting a lion mask 
(yellow mask) 

Mid- 19th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with polychrome overglazes. 

H. 5.3 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.82 

Shishimai child dancer 
lifting a lion mask 
(green mask) 

Mid- 19th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with polychrome overglazes. 

H. 5.3 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.84 



Selected Highlights 29 




7. Monkey-faced sanbaso The sanbaso dancer 
dancer with articulated 
head and tongue 



originated in the 
ninth century and was performed at 
the start of No (and later Kabuki) 
dramas. The dance was to mollify the 
gods who might be angered by errors 
that occur during the theater perfor- 
mances. The traditional costume 
of a sanbaso dancer includes a fan, 
suzu bells, and a tall cap with red 
circles to denote the sun and stripes 
to represent the months of the year. 
The indigenous snow monkeys, or 
saru, were highly regarded by the 
Japanese and thought to be messen- 
gers of the Shinto gods. Their depic- 
tion in human-like activities like 
dancing for the gods was common in 
art and literature. These two humor- 
ous depictions utilize the highly marketable sculptural technique of 
karakuri ("mechanism") to include a moveable head and tongue. 



Mid- 19th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, bisque, blue 

and brown glazes, H. 8.9 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.170 



Monkey-faced sanbaso 
dancer with articulated 
head and tongue 

Early 19th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with bisque, blue, 

and brown glazes, H. 6.4 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.80 




8. Shishimai Child dancer Originating in China, the shishimai 

holding a lion mask rl,on dance ") is P erformed for 

Buddhist and Shinto festivals and 

Early 19th century Ngw ^ ce , ebratjons Although 

Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, blue. ■ • ,, r i 

brown, and black glazes, H. 7.0 cm g r0wn men Originally performed 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.86 the shishimai, depictions of children 

dancers became common in the 
nineteenth century. This version in 
porcelain with limited color glazes is one of the finest known examples 
of the subject in ceramic netsuke and features the idealized Japanese 
representation of a child: the karako — a Chinese boy with distinctive 
tufts of hair and wearing a traditional pantsuit. The open mouth of the 
lion includes a loose porcelain ball, representing a sacred Buddhist 
jewel, or tama, that is associated with wisdom. The fierce face of the 
mythical lion is in stark contrast to the angelic face of the smiling boy. 



28 Selected Highlights 




These three similar versions of the same shishimai ("lion dance") child dancer 
demonstrate the mass-produced nature of ceramic netsuke, which were often 
made with a mold and then finished with hand carving and painting. The three 
colorful netsuke also suggest that the subject had strong market appeal (see also 
Cat. 8). The yellow mask and green mask versions came from the same mold of 
Hirado ware, differing primarily in the application of finishing glazes. The red 
mask version is from a different mold and includes gold enamel, which suggests 
it was created at a kiln in the Kyoto area, rather than at the Hirado kiln that 
produced the other two. A seal under its knee reads Ninsei, associating the piece 
with Kyoto-based ceramist Nonomura Ninsei (active about 1646-1694). The 
appropriation of the name of a celebrated artist from the past provides evidence 
that connecting a work with specific artists had become a marketing tool in the 
competitive netsuke field. 



9. Shishimai child dancer 
lifting a lion mask 
(red mask) 

Late 1 9th century 

Sealed: Ninsei (after Nonomura Ninsei, active about 

1646-1694) 

Kyoto ware; porcelain with polychrome overglazes 

and gold enamel, H. 5.5 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.83 

Shishimai child dancer 
lifting a lion mask 
(yellow mask) 

Mid- 19th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with polychrome overglazes, 

H. 5.3 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.82 

Shishimai child dancer 
lifting a lion mask 
(green mask) 

Mid- 19th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with polychrome overglazes, 

H. 5.3 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.84 



Selected Highlights 29 




10. Mokugyo gong with 
confronting dragon-fish 

Mid- 19th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with blue and brown glazes 

H. 4.2 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.87 

Provenance: Raymond and Frances Bushell 



A mokugyo, literally "wooden fish," 
is a carved percussion instrument 
used by Buddhist monks to provide 
cadence for the recitation of 
religious sutras. The instrument is 
traditionally made of Cyprus (hinoki) 
wood hollowed to create a resonance 
chamber and carved with a large slit 
to produce sound when struck with a 
mallet. The standard design includes two mythical dragon-like fish 
holding a pearl between their mouths to represent unity. Fish, which 
never sleep, symbolize wakefulness in Buddhism and remind the 
practitioners to be diligent in prolonged meditation. This porcelain 
netsuke faithfully recreates the distinctive gong with blue and 
brown glazes that accentuate the textured surface of the fish scales. 
Its decorative shape would have been easily identifiable, evoking its 
rich symbolism and its representation of the quest for enlightenment. 



11. Cracked chestnut 




Mid- 19th century 

Hirado ware; glazed porcelain, H. 3.1 ci 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.177 



A tour deforce of advanced sculptur- 
al techniques, this porcelain netsuke 
is in the form of a cracked chestnut 
(kuri) in a husk that is turned inside 
out to protect the delicate spiny 
prickles of the burr. The prickles 
are individually executed in glazed porcelain. A branch and three 
leaves are rendered in low relief on the outside of the small clus- 
ter. Chestnuts are a seasonal food in Japan that are associated with 
the autumn harvest and often served as part of the traditional New 
Year's meal. 



Selected Highlights 




12. Gama Sennin with 
articulated toad head in 
sleeve 

Early 19th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with bisque, blue, brown, and 

gray glazes, H. 2.2 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.102 

Gama Sennin with toad 
on sleeve 

Mid- 1 9th century 

Kyoto ware; porcelain with blue, brown, and gray 

glazes and gold enamel, H. 4.8 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.101 

Provenance: Raymond and Frances Bushel! 



Gama Sennin holding a 
toad 

Mid- 19th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with blue, brown, gray, and 

celadon glazes, H. 3.8 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.106 



Sennin, or immortals, were Daoist figures who were characterized as eccentric 
beings existing outside of the mainstream of society. Gama Sennin, the Toad 
Immortal, was historically a government official and Daoist scholar from tenth- 
century China. According to one version of his many legends, he retrieved a 
white toad out of a well that was able to transport him on magical journeys. There 
are several Hirado ware porcelain versions of Gama Sennin in the Silverman 
collection, including one that incorporates the technique of karakuri ("mecha- 
nism") in which a toad head extends to peek out of the figure's sleeve. The figure 
with the walking stick includes the distinctive use of gold enamel — uncommon 
in Hirado ware — and was most likely created in the Kyoto area. The ivory-color 
bisque glaze of the tall standing figure replicates the appearance of a carved ivory 
netsuke. It includes a seal that reads Masakazu, a name that appears on other 
ceramic netsuke glazed in a similar way. Masakazu was a common artist name 
used by multiple well-known netsuke carvers of this period. The name was possi- 
bly used on the ceramic netsuke to enhance the similarity to carved ivory. 



Standing Gama Sennin 
holding a basket and toad 

Mid- 19th century 

Sealed: Masakazu 

Hirado ware; porcelain with matte bisque glaze and 

stain, H. 8.3 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.174 

Standing Gama Sennin 
holding a basket and toad 

Mid- 19th century 

Hirado w are; porcelain with clear, blue, celadon, and 

black glazes, H. 8.0 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.172 



Selected Highlights 31 




13. Nude samurai with 
articulated penis 

Late 1 9th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with matte bisque glaze 

and stain, H. 6.7 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.116 



This playful netsuke of a nude man — 
an example based on erotic pictures, 
or shunga — features a karakuri 
("mechanism") penis that can move 
in and out. Such openly risque 
netsuke came into vogue in the late 
nineteenth century. This example 
most likely was not worn on an outer 
garment, but rather collected as a curiosity to be shared with intimate 
friends who would appreciate the humor of the subject. Like the 
Standing Gama Sennin in Cat. 1 2, the glaze and stain of this netsuke 
evoke the look of carved ivory, a technique that was used to further 
integrate ceramic works into the larger netsuke market. 



iliiillJ 




14. Mask of Hannya 

Late 1 9th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with blue glaze, H. 4.4 en 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.135 

Mask of Konoha Tengu 

Mid- 19th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with blue glaze, H. 4.1 en 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.134 



Miniature versions of masks used 
for No and Kyogen theater, folk 
dances, and rituals for Shinto and 
Buddhist ceremonies were well 
suited for use as netsuke as they 
could instantly convey a great deal 
of meaning associated with legends 
and stage dramas. Masks became 
a major theme in ceramic netsuke 
production. These two examples 
in blue-glazed Hirado ware depict 
easily recognizable characters from No theater: Hannya, a female 
demon shown during her climactic supernatural transformation 
from a woman driven by jealousy and rage into a horned monster; 
and Konoha Tengu, a mischievous mountain goblin depicted with a 
distinctive long nose and wearing the small hat of an ascetic hermit 
in the middle of his forehead. 



32 Selected Highlights 



The karako child, or Chinese boy, 
was a popular theme in Hirado 
ware. The subject was appropriated 
from the designs found on imported 
Chinese blue-and-white porcelain 
from the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), 
and was known to be a favorite of the 
official painters of the Hirado court. 

With distinctive dress and hairstyle, 

the karako are easily identifiable and signified fertility, intellectual 
acumen, and a creative imagination. The simple celadon glaze 
imbues the work with elegance. 



15. Seated karako 
child holding a fan 

Early 19th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with celadon and 

matte bisque glaze, H. 4.7 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.160 

Provenance: Lawrence Ernest Gichner, 

Cornelius Van Schaak Roosevelt 




16. Monkey on a horse 

Mid- 19th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, blue and 

brown glazes, H. 3.8 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.188 



Stemming from Chinese mythology 

and Buddhist stories, the belief 

that monkeys were the protectors 

of horses was appropriated by the 

Japanese, and the two animals appear 

together frequently in Japanese art. 

The subject of a monkey riding a 

horse was thought to combine the strength and endurance of the 

horse with the intellect of the monkey. This combination caused the 

subject to be considered a talisman for good fortune. Such "good 

luck" talismans were a prominent theme in netsuke, which were 

often worn for special occasions. 




Selected Highlights 33 




17. Spider on an 
aubergine 

Mid- 19th century 
Hirado ware; porcelain with blue, 
brown, and gray glazes, L. 4.3 cm 
Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.196 



The juxtaposition of an insect and 
a piece of fruit or a vegetable was a 
favorite theme in netsuke. The two 
subjects suggested the concepts of 
impermanence and decay, which 
mirrored the dominant Buddhist 
tenant — present also in the samurai 
code {Bushido) — that life was fleet- 
ing and transient. This theme permeated other aspects of popular 
culture of the Edo period, which celebrated the transient ("the float- 
ing world"), notably in ukiyo-e woodblock prints, or "images of the 
floating world. " 




18. ManjuWith relief of 
shishi lion and peonies 

Mid-1 9th century 

Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, blue 

and brown glazes, Diam. 4.6 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.200 



The combination of shishi lion and 
peonies, a common theme in art of 
the Edo period ( 1 6 1 5-1 868), empha- 
sized the dichotomy between the 
strength and virility of the shishi and 
the beauty and fragility of the peony. 
That these seemingly opposing 
qualities could coexist and comple- 
ment one another was a major tenant of the prevalent code of the 
samurai warrior (Bushido) that encouraged masculine personalities 
to appreciate and participate in refined art and culture, such as the 
tea ceremony and poetry. The relationship between the two subjects 
originates in Buddhist scripture where the mythical shishi fero- 
ciously guards the entrance to Buddha's paradise but can be calmed 
by dew-covered peonies. 



34 Selected Highlights 



This unusual work combines porce- 
lain and paulownia wood in an inno- 
vative way. Although the porcelain 
and the blue underglaze are similar in 
appearance to Hirado ware, no other 
examples of Hirado ware netsuke 
are known to include both wood and 

porcelain. This supports the idea that 

this piece was created in Kyoto. The lotus pod is 
formed out of porcelain with a distinctive somet- 
suke, or blue-and-white glazed exterior, while the 
carved wood seeds are enclosed within the work 
in an unusual incorporation of the technique of 
karakuri ("mechanism"). The moveable seeds add 
a surprising and novel detail to this netsuke that 
enhances its charm and appeal. The lotus has strong 
associations with Buddhism, symbolizing purity 
and fertility. 



19. Lotus pod with 
articulated seeds 

Mid- 1 9th century 

Kyoto ware; porcelain with clear glaze and 

blue underglaze, and paulownia wood, 

L. 3.5 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.103 





20. Square manju with 
dragon motif 

Mid- 19th century 

Sealed: [undeciphered] 

Kyoto ware; porcelain with clear glaze and 

blue underglaze, W. 5.5 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.78 



This square-shaped manju netsuke 
includes a decorative motif of a 
flying dragon in clouds. Ceramic 
manju netsuke — a form that is typi- 
cally round — were often used like 
small canvases for detailed painted 
scenes like this fine example of 
sometsuke, blue-and-white porcelain. 
The dragon (ryu), the fifth animal in 

the East Asian zodiac, was a subject often treated by Japanese artists. 
The dragon was associated with water and is frequently rendered 
flying in the clouds to produce rain. Living in the sky, it was related 
to concepts of the Western Paradise in Buddhism and came to be 
seen as a protector of the Buddhist faith. From early times, it was 
also used as a symbol of imperial power. The name Matsumoto on 
the painted seal has not been identified. 




Selected Highlights 35 









Late 1 9th century 

Sealed: Eiraku 

(possibly by Eiraku Tokuzen, 1853-1909) 

Kyoto ware; porcelain with celadon glaze, 

H. 3.1 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.159 



*~aSl Seagul 



21. Seagull Although these two netsuke of 

seagulls (kamome) are made from 
the same ceramic mold, the overall 
effect of each work is strikingly 
different. Both the finishing glazes 
and the varying format of the signa- 
ture and seal of the thirteenth-gener- 
ation Zengoro family artist Eiraku 
Tokuzen (1853-1909) distinguish 
the two works from one another. 
Their differences and their similari- 
ties provide evidence that ceramic 
netsuke were often produced in 
a workshop environment where 
production was guided by specific 
responses to market demand and 

name and style recognition. Eiraku 

Tokuzen was a well-known Kyoto-based potter who was known for 
his mastery of diverse ceramic and glaze styles, including blue-and- 
white porcelain, or sometsuke. 



Late 19th century 

Signed: Eiraku tsukuru 

(possibly by Eiraku Tokuzen, 1 853-1909) 

Kyoto ware; porcelain with clear glaze and blue 

underglaze, H. 3.1 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.198 

Provenance: Burt and Ten Krouner 



22. Flying oni demon 




Mid- 19th century 

Kyoto ware; porcelain with celadon 
and matte-brown glazes, L. 5.0 cm 
Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.16 



Oni, or demons, are Buddhist atten- 
dants known to assist the Ten Kings 
of Hell (Ju-6), who preside at the 
gates of the underworld pronounc- 
ing judgment on whether souls will 
go to heaven or to hell. Oni are 
often depicted in art as carrying out 
the torture and punishments of the condemned. They came to be 
shown in satirical poses as in this work in which the oni is rendered 
flying humorously through the air. The rich celadon glaze (seiji) 
and matte-brown glaze provide a sophisticated appearance to the 
otherwise comical figure. 



Selected Highlights 







23. Seated komainu 
guardian lion-dog 

Late 1 9th century 

Signed: Dohachi (after Nin'ami Dohachi. 1783-1855) 

Kyoto ware; porcelain with clear glaze and blue 

underglaze, H. 4.3 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.189 

Seated komainu guardian 
lion-dog 

Late 1 9th century 

Sealed: Kairakuen (Kairakuen Garden kiln) 
Kyoto ware; porcelain with purple glaze. H. 4.3 cm 
Gift of Richard R. Silverman. 2009.141 



These two works are from the same ceramic mold, but, like the seagulls in Cat. 21, 
possess distinctly different finishing glazes and seals and signatures. The example 
with purple glaze includes a seal of Kairakuen. Kairakuen Garden kiln was a 
Tokugawa-sponsored kiln in Kii Province (present-day Wakayama Prefecture) in 
the Kansai region near Kyoto. The Kansai region was home to the Tokugawa Kii 
House, a branch, along with Mito and Owari, of the Tokugawa Gosanke ("three 
houses"). The celebrated Kyoto-based ceramist Nin'ami Dohachi — as referenced 
with the inclusion of the signature Dohachi on the blue and white version — was 
known to have worked at Kairakuen Garden under the patronage of Tokugawa 
Harutomi (1770-1852), and hence had an association with the garden kiln. 
Since the garden kiln was most famous for the earthenware Raku tea ceram- 
ics produced there, these porcelain lion-dogs may be Meiji-period (1868-1912) 
replicas that capitalized on name and place recognition and possibly served as 
souvenirs. These creative differences support the idea that a highly sophisticated 
system of made-to-order ceramic netsuke production developed in Japan by the 
end of the nineteenth century. 



Selected Highlights 37 




27. Mask of Okame 



Early 20th century 

Sealed: Yoshiro 

Signed: Kyo Maruyama Hironoya 

Kyoto ware; earthenware with clear glaze and 

red and black underglazes, H. 4.7 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.167 



This mask netsuke of the Shinto 
goddess Okame has an interesting 
history. Made in a mold, it and others 
like it were given as gifts to favored 
patrons of a restaurant in Kyoto. It 
is signed Yoshiro, who was a little- 
known ceramist working in the early 
.. twentieth century. In addition, it is 
inscribed Kyo Maruyama Hironoya; 
Kyo stands for Kyoto, Maruyama is the name of a famous park in 
Kyoto, and Hironoya is the name of the restaurant.* 

* Another example of this work is reproduced in Raymond Bushell, Netsuke Familiar 
& Unfamiliar: New Principles for Collecting (New York: Weatherhill, 1999), 
no. 468, p. 173. 




28. Okame pleasuring 
herself 

Mid- 1 9th century 

Sealed: Dohachi (after Nin'ami Dohachi, 1783-1855 

Kyoto ware; porcelain with polychrome glazes, 

H. 3.2 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.145 




Okame is a Shinto goddess of sexu- 
ality and fertility. She is identifiable 
by her chubby cheeks, shaved and 
painted eyebrows, and restrained 
demeanor. In a common gesture of 
modesty she is often depicted with a 
raised left hand covering her smile. In 
this erotic (shunga) version, instead 
of raising her hand in modesty, she is 
rendered pleasuring herself. Erotic netsuke were not uncommon, but 
due to the display of netsuke on outer garments, the 
salacious content was often obscured. Here her activity 
is only revealed if one turns the netsuke upside down. 
A frequent subject in the visual arts, Okame was also 
a common character in Japanese theater productions, 
often representing the good fortune that will come to 
any man she marries. 



Selected Highlights 



29. Beetle on maple leaf 



This exquisitely rendered maple 

leaf with celadon glaze (seiji) 

demonstrates the extreme delicacy 

with which porcelain netsuke were 

produced. The celadon glaze pools 

slightly along the jagged edge of 

the leaf and provides a dramatic 

contrast to the matte-brown glaze of the highly-articulated body of 

the beetle. It represents the finest level of craftsmanship that Kyoto 

artisans produced. 



Mid- 1 9th century 

Kyoto ware; porcelain with matte-brown 

and celadon glazes, L. 6.2 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009. 1 56 

Provenance: David A. Swedlow 





The hare (magi), the fourth animal 30. Hare 

of the zodiac, was associated with 
a Buddhist jataka, or tale, in which 
the animal is rewarded for its gener- 
osity by being placed on the moon, 
visible to all on earth. This hare is 
depicted with large ears that have 
been colored with a contrasting pink 

glaze. It is stamped with the Raku seal, associating it with the long 
history of Raku artisans, who were celebrated for their production 
of rustic wares for use in the tea ceremony. The form of the seal and 
dating of the work suggest it is by the eleventh Raku family artist, 
Keinyu (1817-1902). 



Mid- 19th century 

Sealed: Raku 

(possibly by Raku Keinyu, 1817-1 902 ) 

Kyoto ware, Raku style; glazed earthenware 

with pink underglaze, H. 2.9 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.250 




Selected Highlights 





31. Stylized bear 

Late 1 9th century 

Sealed: Ei (possibly by Eiraku Wazen, 1823-1896) 
Kyoto ware, Raku style; glazed stoneware, L. 5.7 cm 
Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.95 

Recumbent boar on a 
pedestal 

Late 1 9th century 

Sealed: Ei (possibly by Eiraku Wazen, 1823-1896) 
Kyoto ware, Raku style; glazed stoneware, L. 4.1 cm 
Gift of Richard R. Silverman. 2009.94 



The Eiraku family of potters, who were celebrated for their production of ceramic 
wares in Kyoto since the sixteenth century, were also associated with ceramic 
netsuke production. Both of these works are stamped with the family characters of 
Ei, which most likely relate to the twelfth generation Eiraku Wazen (also known as 
Eiraku Zengoro, 1823-1896). Celebrated for his mastery of diverse styles, Wazen 
designed these works in the traditional Raku style. The rough appearance of these 
heavily glazed stoneware netsuke stand in stark contrast to the refinement of the 
porcelain works of Hirado ware. The simplified forms of the animals reflect the 
rustic nature that was popularized by the Raku family, who were also active in 
Kyoto. The boar (inoshishi) was the twelfth animal of the zodiac, while the stylized 
bear is modeled on a type of clay toy from Fushimi, south of Kyoto, sold at the 
Fushimi Inari Shrine and distinguished by the circle painted on its back. 



Selected Highlights 



Mid 
Nabeshima ware; porcelain with c 



The pale, even color and smoothness 
of the celadon glaze, along with the 
beautiful modeling of this netsuke, 
mark it as an exceptional example of 
Nabeshima ware of the Edo period 
(1615-1868). The kiln at Nabeshima 
was the first in Japan to utilize 

celadon production techniques from 

Southern China beginning in the 17th century. It exemplifies the 
advanced techniques of Japanese porcelain production. Originating 
in China, the shishi lion was a guardian figure associated with 
Buddhism. 



32. Recumbent 
shishi Won 



Gift of Ri 



9th century 

adon glaze, 

L. 5.4 cm 

hard R.Silverman, 2009.162 




33. Toy dog (inuhariko) 



Late 1 9th century 

Signed: Kenya (Miura Kenya, 1821-1889) 

Edo ware; earthenware with polychrome glazes, 

H. 2.6 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.255 



Kenya was one of the most prolific 

ceramic artists known to have created 

netsuke. His ceramic ware was finely 

molded in elaborate shapes and 

often included extravagantly painted 

details in glazes and enamels. Here, 

Kenya addresses the beloved subject 

of inuhariko, or the toy dog, which 

was given as a talisman for childbirth and the protection of children. 

It was traditionally made of papier-mache and hollow so that it could 

hold a small object. Kenya reached a high degree of recognition in 

netsuke production during his lifetime, as evidenced by many known 

reproductions of his work that include forged signatures and seals. 




Selected Highlights 43 




34. Kagamibuta with 
Daruma holding a whisk 

Mid- 18th century 

Sealed: Kan (Ogavva Haritsu, 1663-1747) 

Edo ware; earthenware with polychrome glazes and 

ironwood, Diam. 4.0 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.89 

Provenance: Melvin and Betty Jahss 



This kagamibuta netsuke (a type that 
includes a "mirror-lidded" disk on a 
bowl) portrays a likeness of Daruma, 
the first patriarch of Zen Buddhism. 
He is shown holding a whisk 
(hossu), an attribute that symbol- 
ized the swishing away of delusive 
thoughts and ideas that were barriers 
to enlightenment. The work includes 
the seal of the celebrated lacquer 
1747), also known as Ritsuo, who 
was known to have worked in ceramic and included inlaid ceramic 
discs in some of his celebrated lacquer work.* Haritsu grew up in 
the samurai household of Ogawa before moving to Edo where he 
became an artist and poet, studying under the haiku master Matsuo 
Basho (1644-1694). 

*An 18th-century writing box (suzuribako) with a circular ceramic disk by Haritsu is 
in the permanent collection of the Tokyo National Museum. 



artist Ogawa Haritsu (1663- 




35. Elephant on a 
decorative pedestal 

Late 1 9th century 

Signed: Kenya (Miura Kenya, 1821-1889) 
Edo ware; earthenware with polychrome glazes, 
inlaid pearls, and carved black jasper, H. 2.7 cm 
Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.93 
Provenance: Walter Lionel Behrens 



Although elephants (zo) were 
imported to Japan by the nineteenth 
century, this elephant netsuke with 
elaborate costume represents a 
distinctive Indian elephant most 
likely viewed in illustrated books 
from China. It is highly decorative 
and includes an elaborate base made 
of black jasper with inlaid freshwater 
pearls throughout, a practice that was 
common during the Meiji period (1868-1912). Intricate and full of 
personality, this netsuke is an exceptional example of the work of 
the celebrated artist, Miura Kenya (1821-1889). It showcases his 
astute talent for working in a diminutive scale and for combining 
diverse materials. 



44 Selected Highlights 



36. Octopus pot 



Late 1 9th century 

Signed: Kanji ( follower of Kawamoto Teiji, 

active mid- 19th century) 

Edo ware; earthenware with polychrome gla/es 

and lacquer, H. 3.4 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.154 



The octopus pot, or takotsubo, was 
a reoccurring theme in netsuke. 
Fishermen would lure the octopus by 
placing a baited pot on its side in shal- 
low water. An octopus would find its 
way into the vessel and the fisherman 
would quickly turn the pot upright to 

catch the unsuspecting animal. There 

were similar versions of this netsuke 

done by the ceramic artist Kawamoto Teiji (active mid-19th century). 
Although there are no records of the artist Kanji, due to the strong 
similarities with the work of Kawamoto Teiji it is believed that they 
had a relationship of master and pupil.* The work is exquisitely made 
and is an interesting example of red lacquer combined with porcelain. 




*Michael Dean, "Kanji-Teiji-Seiji," International Netsuke So 
No. 1 (Spring 1998), pp. 36-42. 



zty Journal, Vol. 18, 



37. Three-eyed goblin 

with articulated head 

and tongue 



I do 



The karakuri ("mechanism") tech- 
nique of this goblin (bakemono) — 
its head swivels and its tongue 
extends — enhances its playful 
appeal. The supernatural became a 
fashionable theme in popular culture 
during the Edo period ( 1615-1868), 
and stories and images of ghosts and 
goblins were common subjects in 
the genres of Kabuki theater, ukiyo-e 
prints, and netsuke. This goblin could 

be the "three-eyed priest-boy" (mitsume kozo), a relatively benign 
monster from Japanese folklore. Although sometimes depicted as 
a bald, boyish figure with just one, large eye in the middle of his 
forehead, this three-eyed version features other known attributes of 
the creature, including its resemblance to a Buddhist priest and its 
long tongue. 




Mid- 19th century 

Attributed: Miura Kenya, 1821-1889 

ware; earthenware with polychrome glazes, 

H.4.1 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009. 146 

Provenance: Raymond and Frances Bushel! 



&§3& 




Selected Highlight; 



38. Raijin, the god of 
thunder 




1 9th 



Mid- 19th century 

Signed: Teiji (Kawamoto Teiji, active mid 

century) 

Edo ware; earthenware with polychrome glazes 

H. 3.6 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.149 



This manju netsuke of Raijin, the 
god of thunder in Japanese mythol- 
ogy, is cleverly created to be equally 
interesting from both sides. Raijin, 
who is most often paired with the 
god of wind, Fujin, is usually depict- 
ed as a fierce-looking demon striking 
a drum or drums to create the loud 
sound of thunder. In this netsuke, he 
is shown rather humorously carrying his accoutre- 
ment on his back in a white sling. His pensive face 
is visible peaking through an opening in the clouds 
on the reverse of the netsuke. Perhaps created as 
an auspicious charm for fair weather, the netsuke's 
swirling pattern of blue-glazed clouds alludes to 
the calm skies that prevail when Raijin is not beat- 
ing his thunder-making drum. Kawamoto Teiji was 
one of the most celebrated netsuke artists working 
with ceramics. He was permitted to establish a kiln in Tokyo on 
the grounds of the Matsudaira daimyo. His specialty was combining 
pottery with paulownia wood (see Cat. 39). 




39. Kappa in an eel trap 




Mid- 19th century 

Signed: Teiji (Kawamoto Teiji, active mid-19th 

century) 

Edo ware; earthenware with polychrome glazes 

and paulownia wood, L. 4.4 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.148 

Provenance: Michael Dean 



The kappa, or water sprite, is a 
legendary creature of Japanese 
folklore thought to inhabit rivers and 
ponds. Child-like in size with the 
body of a monkey or frog, the shell 
of a turtle, and the face of a monkey, 
sometimes with a bird's beak, they 
are considered mischievous trouble- 
makers. They are often depicted 
performing some kind of humorous prank, or as in this example, 
restrained or trapped. This unusual netsuke is a combination of 
pottery and wood, a specially of artist Kawamoto Teiji. The kappa is 
molded from pottery and glazed with its body colored green, its eyes 
yellow, and its tongue red. It looks helplessly out from an opening in 
the eel trap, which is fashioned from paulownia wood. 



Selected Highlights 



40. Chinese chin dog 



<ult. 



Identifying the ceramic type, kiln, 
and area of production for a ceramic 
netsuke can be extremely diffi- 
cult, and it is a task that is further 
complicated by the fact that during 
the nineteenth century, the Chinese 
were known to be producing and 
exporting ceramic pieces for the 
burgeoning Japanese market. This 
chin dog is one example that exhibits 
evidence in its porcelain and glaze 
type that it was made in China. The 

seated karako child is also thought to be produced in a Chinese kiln. 
The distinct treatment of the face and use of unusual glazes and 
enamel contrasts greatly with Hirado ware versions of the same 
subject (see Cat. 8). 



Mid- 19th century, China 

Porcelain with clear glaze and 

blue undergla/e, H. 2.7 cm 

Richard R. Silverman, 2009.203 



Seated karako child 

Mid-19th century, China 

Porcelain with polychrome glazes 

and gold enamel, H. 3.7 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.247 




Early 1 9th century 

Arita ware; porcelain with clear glaze and 

blue underglaze, H. 3.3 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.76 



The poisonous blowflsh (jitgu) has 41. BlOWflSh 

long been considered a delicacy in 
Japan, and having the opportunity, 
means, and daring to dine on the fish 
was recognized as a mark of high 

status. As such the fish was consid- 

ered an auspicious symbol. This work is notable in that it is not a 
product of a mold as with the majority of other porcelain netsuke, 
but rather is a rare piece shaped by hand. The detailed brushwork 
of the blue underglaze makes it a fine example of the tradition of 
sometsuke, or blue-and-white porcelain. 



K 




fT-: 



Selected Highlights 47 




42. Stylized rooster 



Early 19th century 

Arita ware; porcelain with polychrome glazes 

4.2 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.91 



Like the gourd-shaped bottle (Cat. 
24), this work is an interesting 
example of a netsuke that served a 
dual purpose. The stylized rooster, 
the tenth zodiac animal, is hollow 
with an opening at its mouth. The 
unusual construction of this "vessel" 

suggests that it could be used as a small bottle to hold water, a 

mizuire, for wetting the black sumi ink for writing and calligraphy. 

The rooster is painted in colorful overglazes, which accentuate its 

stylized appearance. 



43. Cluster of shells 



Late 1 8th century 

Arita ware; porcelain with polychrome 

overglazes. L. 6.7 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.92 




6kflQfc^^£r 



Although an Arita ware piece, this 
netsuke was painted in vibrant 
polychrome glazes in the style of 
Kakiemon porcelain, founded by the 
ceramist Sakaida Kakiemon (1596- 

1 666). Made with a mold, the cluster 

of shells creates an opportunity to 
exploit the full array of available enamels to achieve a colorful 
visual effect that reproduces the rich, decorative appearance of the 
celebrated Kakiemon style that became highly prized in the West. 
The form was later reproduced in Hirado ware in a slightly smaller 
format (Checklist, p. 59). 



48 Selected Highlights 



44. Monkey trainer 



Mid-19th century 

Imari ware; porcelain with polychrome overglazcs 

and gold enamel, H. 5.4 cm 

Gilt of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.124 



The origins of monkey performances 
in Japan can be traced back to dances 
that were part of religious rituals to 
call on the healing powers of the 
gods. Through the centuries, they 

took on a more secular significance 

and by the middle of the Edo period 

(1615-1868), were quite commonplace. Retaining at least some 
quasi-religious meaning, they were particularly popular at prominent 
events such as funerals, festivals, and celebrations at the New Year. 
In this rendering the colorfully costumed trainer seems to overpower 
the cowering monkey at his side. The color and glazing technique 
suggest the porcelain style of Imari. 




45. Standing rakan 



Mid- 19th century 

mari ware; porcelain with polychrome overglazes. 

H. 7.7 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.173 



The rakan were Buddhist disciples 

who had followed the Buddha's 

Eightfold Path to enlightenment. 

Images of any of the sixteen holy 

disciples were considered auspicious 

and often given as gifts. They were 

believed to be a bridge between the 

earthly world and the Western Paradise. The spread of Zen Buddhism 

in the Edo period caused a renewed interest in the rakan and their 

solitary, ascetic lifestyle. This porcelain netsuke is an excellent 

example of the Imari style with its colorful overglazes painted on the 

figure's cloak. 




Selected Highlights 




46. Roly-poly Daruma 

Late 1 9th century 

Bizen ware; glazed earthenware with gold enamel 

H. 3.6 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.262 



Both of these Bizen ware netsuke 
depict the "roly-poly" version 
of Daruma, the patriarch of Zen 
Buddhism. The one on the right with 
a deep, red glaze features the serene 
face of a beautiful woman, called 
"female Daruma" (onna Daruma). 
The female version of Daruma 
played on a satirical association with 
Edo period (1615-1868) prostitutes 
and the pleasure quarters where 
they worked. The more traditional 
version on the left alludes to the story in which after nine straight 
years of meditation, Daruma's arms and legs atrophied and fell off. 
Gold enamel strikingly highlights his eyes, earrings, and the flaming 
symbol on his stomach that represents his enlightenment and place 
as one of the three sacred jewels (sanbo) of Buddhism. 



Female Daruma 

Late 1 9th century 

Bizen ware; glazed earthenware, H. 4.2 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.261 




47. Pipe 



Aside from its function as a netsuke, 

this work by Mashimizu Zoroku 

(1822-1877) could be used as a 

pipe to smoke tobacco, attesting 

to the importance of the rise in use 

of tobacco in Japan and the impact 

it had on the netsuke industry (see 

essay, pp. 11-12). The distinctive 

Oribe style includes the use of a blue-green vitriol and brown iron 

glazes. Zoroku was a ceramist in Kyoto who worked to replicate 

known ceramic styles, including Oribe and Korean celadon. 



Mid- 19th century 

Signed: Zoroku (Mashimizu Zoroku, 1822-1877) 

Oribe ware; stoneware with green and brown glazes 

L. 6.3 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009. 1 1 8 



Selected Highlights 



Banko ware, which is most 
commonly associated with small, red 
teapots Qcyusu), describes a range of 
porcelain and earthenware produc- 
tion from an area in Iga Province 
(present-day Mie Prefecture). These 
two colorful Banko ware netsuke 
represent subjects with long histo- 
ries. The dog-shaped children's toy, 
or inuhariko, had been produced 
from the Heian period (794-1185) 
as a protective amulet. By the begin- 
ning of the Edo period ( 1 6 1 5-1 868), 

they were part of the traditional wedding gift set, used to ensure safe 
childbirth and to protect the child's health. The tongue-cut sparrow 
was from a popular folktale about a kind, old man and his favorite 
pet. After the man's jealous wife cuts out the sparrow's tongue, the 
bird flees, but is eventually reunited with his master, resulting in 
great prosperity for the humble old man. The sparrow has since been 
associated with good fortune. 



48. Standing toy dog 
{inuhariko) 

Late 1 9th century 

Banko ware; earthenware with polychrome 

glazes and silver enamel, H. 3.6 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.206 

Tongue-cut sparrow 

Late 19th century 

Banko ware; earthenware with polychrome 

overglazes, H. 2.0 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.207 




<a 



49. Kagamibuta with 
floral motif 

Mid- 19th century 

Satsuma ware; earthenware with polychrome glazes 

and gold enamel, paulownia wood, Diam. 4.2 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.130 



Satsuma ware, which originated 
during the late sixteenth century, 
became an extremely success- 
ful export to Europe during the 
nineteenth century after examples 
were displayed at the Exposition 
Universelle of 1867 in Paris. The 
miniature ceramic disk in this 

netsuke possesses all the celebrated features of Satsuma ware, 
including rich, polychrome glazes and gold enamel. The decorative 
floral pattern is set off by the simplicity of the paulownia wood's 
natural grain. 




Selected Highlights 







50. Mask of Okina 

20th century 

Sealed: Sekiho (Shimizu Sekiho, 1889-1971) 
Onko ware; earthenware with white glaze, H. 4.8 cm 
Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.285 



Fishface mask 

Late 1 9th-20th century 

Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen 11, 1876-1939) 

Onko ware; earthenware with white glaze and stain, 

H.4.1 cm 

Gift of Richard R. Silverman, 2009.291 

Mask of a monkey (saru) 

Late 1 9th-20th century 

Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen 1. 1848-1927) 
Onko ware; earthenware with stain, H. 4.6 cm 
Gift of Richard R. Silverman. 2009.279 



These mask netsuke are fine examples of Onko ware production, which thrived 
from the late Edo period (1615-1868) to the early Showa period (1926-1989) 
in Akasaka, Gifu Prefecture. The ware's namesake, Shimizu Onko (active about 
1850s-60s), produced distinctive wares for the tea ceremony, but his younger 
brother, Shimizu Sekisen I (1848-1927), began to make ceramic mask netsuke 
from carved wooden molds. Sekisen's son, known as Sekisen II (1876-1939), but 
written with different characters than his father's signature, and Shimizu Sekiho 
(1889-1971) continued the tradition. The miniature masks became sought-after 
souvenirs and were often sold to both Japanese and foreign tourists as sets 
fastened to wooden plaques. At the height of their production, the mask molds 
were used to make between one and two thousand netsuke a month.* 

*Yamagata Takeshi (translated and edited by Mikoshiba Misao and Raymond Bushell), 
"About Onko-yaki Mask Netsuke," Netsuke Kcnkyukni Study Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1 (1986), pp. 24-29. 



52 Selected Highlights 



Checklist of the Richard R. Silverman ceramic netsuke collection 



The checklist of the Silverman collection of ceramic netsuke is organized alphabetically 
by the ceramic type/kiln and then numerically by the Toledo Museum of Art's accession 
number (the four-digit year of acquisition followed by a number indicating the sequence 
in which the object was acquired in that year; e.g., 2009.66 indicates the sixty-sixth object 
acquired in the year 2009). 

A d indicates when an image of a seal or signature is included at the end of the checklist. 
The seals and signatures are arranged numerically by accession number beginning on p. 72. 

A glossary of selected Japanese words used in the checklist begins on p. 78. 



Location of kilns and areas of ceramic production represented in the Silverman collection 




HOKKAIDO 




J o ware 

<&JMo ( Tokyo ) 



, ■ •Itnari ware 
Anta ware/-»-« 
Kakiemon/ "Hirado ware 
Nabeshima 



SHTKOKU 



KYUSHU 

•Satsuma ware 










2009.76 F«#H (blowfish), early 19th century. Arita 
ware; porcelain with clear glaze and blue underglaze 
{sometsuke), H. 3.3 cm 

2009.77 Disc with decorative motif. I 8th century. Arita 
ware; porcelain with clear glaze and blue underglaze 
(sometsuke) and metal fitting, Diam. 5.2 cm 

2009.91 Stylized rooster, early 19th century. Arita ware: 
porcelain with polychrome glazes, 4.2 cm 

2009.92 Cluster of shells, late 18th century. Arita ware: 
porcelain with polychrome glazes, L. 6.7 cm 

2009.108 Gourd-shaped hottle with floral and insect 
motif, early 19th century. Arita ware; porcelain with clear 
glaze and blue underglaze (sometsuke). metal stopper and 
fitting, H. 6.0 cm 

2009.209 Chinese literati, mid- 18th century. Arita ware: 
porcelain with brown and celadon glazes. H. 5.0 cm 



*sm$ 





^ 







% 



a 2009. 1 26 Manju in the form of a stylized 

chrysanthemum, mid- 19th century. Sealed: Banko. 
Banko ware; earthenware w ith polychrome glazes. 
Diam. 4.0 cm 

2009.206 Standing inuhariko (toy dog), late 19th 
century. Banko ware; earthenware w ith polychrome glazes 
and silver enamel. H. 3.6 cm 

2009.207 Tongue-cut sparrow, late 19th century. Banko 
ware; earthenware with polychrome overglazes. H. 2.0 cm 

2009.208 Stylized sparrow, mid- 19th century. Banko 
ware; earthenware with polychrome glazes. H. 2.5 cm 

d 2009.226 Mokugyo gong w ith confronting dragons. 

late 19th century. Sealed: Banko. Banko ware: 
earthenware with polychrome glazes. L. 3.6 cm 

2009.243 Sleeping boar, mid- 19th century. Banko ware: 
earthenware with polychrome glazes. L. 5.2 cm 

D2009.256 Peasant woman with begging bowl, mid- 19th 
century. Sealed: Banko. Banko ware; earthenware with 
polychrome glazes. H. 3.3 cm 

d 2009.257 Tanuki inside a chestnut, late 19th century. 
Sealed: Banko fueki. Banko ware: earthenware with clear 
and yellow alazes. L. 4.2 cm 



Checklist 55 



6 




2009.261 Female Daruma, late 19th century. Bizen ware; 
glazed earthenware, H. 4.2 cm 



2009.262 Daruma, late 19th century. Bizen ware; glazed 
earthenware with nold enamel, H. 3.6 cm 



^Hft 



m 



2009.67 China, Pair of shoes, 13th century. Chinese ware; 
earthenware with clear glaze and brown underglaze, 
H. 2.2 cm 

2009.203 China, Chin dog, mid- 19th century. Chinese 
ware; earthenware with clear glaze, and blue underglaze 
(sometsuke), L. 5.2 cm 

2009.247 China, Seated karako child, mid-19th century. 
Chinese ware; porcelain with polychrome glazes and gold 
enamel, H. 4.1cm 






a 2009.88 Square manju of Okame, mid- 19th century. 
Signed: Kenya (Miura Kenya, 1821-1989). Edo ware; 
earthenware with polychrome glazes, L. 3.9 cm 

a 2009.89 Kagamibuta with Daruma holding a whisk. 

mid-1 8th century. Sealed: Kan (Ogawa Haritsu, 1663- 
1747). Edo ware; earthenware with polychrome glazes and 
ironwood, Diam. 4.0 cm 

a 2009.93 Elephant on a decorative pedestal, late 19th 
century. Signed: Kenya (Miura Kenya, 1821-1889). Edo 
ware; earthenware with polychrome glazes, inlaid pearls, 
and black jasper. H. 2.7 cm 

a 2009.143 Cylinder with image of Fukurokuju. late 
19th century. Signed: Kenya tsukuru (Miura Kenya, 
1821-1889). Edo ware; earthenware with polychrome 
glazes, H. 4.8 cm 

2009.146 Three-eyed bakemono with articulated head 
and tongue, mid- 19th century. Attributed: Miura Kenya. 
1821-1889. Edo ware; earthenware with polychrome 
glazes, H. 4.1 cm 

d 2009.147 Oni reading Buddhist sutras. mid- 19th 
century. Signed: Kenya (Miura Kenya, 1821-1889). Edo 
ware; earthenware with polychrome glazes, H. 3.5 cm 



Checklist 






< 





9 






a 2009.148 Kappa in an eel trap, mid- 19th centurj 
Teiji (Kawamoto Teiji, active mid-19th century). Edo ware; 
earthenware with polychrome glazes and paulov. n 
L. 4.4 cm 

a 2009.149 Raijin, the god of thunder, mid- 1 9th century. 
Signed: Teiji (Kawamoto Teiji, active mid-1 9th century). 
Edo ware; earthenware with polychrome glazes. H. 3.6 cm 

o 2009.150 Frog on a lotus pod. mid-1 9th century. Signed: 
Teiji (Kawamoto Teiji, active mid- 19th century). Edo ware: 
glazed porcelain with paulownia wood. H. 3.6 cm 

a 2009.151 Frog on a lotus leaf, mid- 19th century. Signed: 
Teiji (Kawamoto Teiji, active mid-1 9th century). Edo ware; 
glazed porcelain with paulownia wood, L. 3.7 cm 

a 2009.152 Turtle, mid- 19th century. Signed: Teiji 
(Kawamoto Teiji, active mid- 1 9th century). Edo ware: 
porcelain with brown glaze, L. 3.3 cm 

d 2009.153 Seated man with basket and cat. mid- 19th 
century. Signed: Teiji (Kawamoto Teiji, active mid- 19th 
century). Edo ware; earthenware with polychrome glazes. 
2.9 cm 

o 2009.154 Octopus pot. late 19th century. Signed: Kanji 
(follower of Kawamoto Teiji, active mid-19th century). Edo 
ware; earthenware with polychrome glazes and lacquer. 
H. 3.4 cm 

d 2009.255 Inuhanko (toy dog). late 19th century. Signed: 
Kenya (Miura Kenya, 1821-1889). Edo ware: earthenware 
w ith polychrome overglazes, H. 2.6 cm 





2O09.6S Rat, early 19th century. Hirado ware: glazed 
porcelain, H. 3.0 cm 

2009.69 Crouching shishi on a lotus pedestal, mid- 19th 
century. Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, blue, brown, and 
celadon glazes, H. 3.4 cm 

2009.70 Frog on a mushroom cap. mid- 19th century. Hirado 
ware; porcelain w ith clear, blue, black, and brow n glazes. 

H. 2.5 cm 

2009.71 Hare. mid-19th century. Hirado ware: glazed 
porcelain, H. 3.0 cm 

2009.72 Amorous couple and octopus inside cracked 
eggshell, mid- 19th century. Hirado ware: porcelain with clear, 
bisque, brown, and gray glazes. L. 4.2 cm 

d 2009.74 European trade ship, mid- 19th century. Inscribed: 
Kotobuki and Shonzui. Hirado ware; porcelain with clear 
glaze and blue underglaze (sonicisuke). H. 4.4 cm 



Checklist 57 




w 




k 



^^Mm 




ir 








2009.75 Zodiac animals with the four directions, 

mid- 19th century. Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, blue, 
brown, and gray glazes, Diam. 3.2 cm 

2009.80 Monkey-faced sanbaso dancer with articulated 
head and tongue, early 19th century. Hirado ware; porcelain 
with bisque, blue, and brown glazes, H. 6.4 cm 

2009.81 Sparrow, early 19th century. Hirado ware; glazed 
porcelain, H. 3.2 cm 

2009.82 Shishimai child dancer lifting a lion mask, 

mid- 19th century. Hirado ware; porcelain with polychrome 
ovcrglazes, H. 5.3 cm 

2009.84 Shishimai child dancer lifting a lion mask. 

mid- 19th century. Hirado ware; porcelain with polychrome 
overglazes, H. 5.3 cm 

2009.85 Hotei carrying a karako child on his shoulder, mid- 
19th century. Hirado ware; porcelain with polychrome glazes. 
H.6.7 cm 

2009.86 Shishimai child dancer holding a lion mask, early 
19th century. Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, blue, brown, 
and black glazes, H. 7.0 cm 

2009.87 Mokugyo gong with confronting dragon-fish, 

mid- 19th century. Hirado ware; porcelain with blue and brown 
glazes, H. 4.2 cm 

2009.97 Pinecone with fly and spider, late 19th century. 
Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, blue, and brown glazes, 
L. 4.6 cm 

2009.99 Recumbent karako child, late 19th century. Hirado 
ware; porcelain with bisque, blue, brown, and gray glazes, 
L. 5.1cm 

2009.100 Fukurokuju, mid- 1 9th century. Hirado ware; 
porcelain with clear, blue, and brown glazes, H. 5.6 cm 

2009.102 Gama Sennin with articulated toad head in 
sleeve, early 19th century. Hirado ware; porcelain with bisque, 
blue, brown, and gray glazes, H. 2.7 cm 

a 2009.104 Gourd-shaped bottle with metal stopper, mid- 
19th century. Signed: Dai mei koku ka ?? tsukuru. Hirado 
ware; porcelain with blue underglaze (sometsuke), H. 4.7 cm 

2009.105 Marine cluster with crab, mid- 19th century. Hirado 
ware; porcelain with clear, blue, and brown glazes, W. 4.0 cm 

2009.106 Gama Sennin holding a toad, mid- 19th century. 
Hirado ware; porcelain with blue, brown, gray, and celadon 
glazes, H. 3.8 cm 



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>■ 



£k 




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4* 




2009.116 Nude samurai with articulated penis, late 
19th century. Hirado ware; porcelain with matte bisque 
glaze and stain, H. 6.7 cm 

2009.117 Pregnant woman, mid-19th century. Hirado 
ware; porcelain with matte bisque glaze and stain. 



2009.131 Frog on a rock, mid- 19th century. Hirado 
ware; porcelain with blue, brown, and celadon glazes. 
H. 3.2 cm 

2009.133 Mask of Daikoku, late 18th century- Hirado 
ware; porcelain with clear and blue glazes, H. 4.6 cm 

2009. 1 34 Mask of Konoha Tengu, mid- 1 9th century. 
Hirado ware; porcelain with blue glaze, H. 4.1 cm 

2009.135 Mask of Hannya, late 19th century. Hirado 
ware; porcelain with blue glaze, H. 4.4 cm 

2009.136 Cluster of seashells, mid- 1 9th century. Hirado 
ware; porcelain with clear, gray, blue, and brown glazes. 
L. 4.5 cm 

d 2009.137 Gourd-shaped bottle with metal stopper. 

early 19th century. Signed: Dai mei koku ka '.'.' tsukuru. 
Hirado ware; porcelain w ith clear glaze and blue 
underglaze {sometsuke). H. 5.4 cm 

2009.160 Seated karako child holding a fan. early 19th 
century. Hirado ware; porcelain with celadon and matte 
bisque glaze, H. 4.7 cm 

d 2009.166 Hannya mask, late 19th century. Signed: 
[undesciphered]. Hirado ware; porcelain with blue and 
brown glazes, H. 4.5 cm 

2009.168 Seated dog with articulated head, late 19th 
century. Hirado ware; glazed porcelain, H. 6.0 cm 

2009.169 Sea bream, late 19th century. Hirado ware: 
glazed porcelain, L. 7.2 cm 

2009.170 Monkey-faced sanbaso dancer with 
articulated head and tongue, mid- 19th century. Hirado 
ware; porcelain with clear, bisque, blue, and brown 
glazes, H. 8.9 cm 

2009.171 Tsuru Sennin holding a crane foot, early 19th 
century. Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, celadon, and 
brown glazes, H. 8.4 cm 

2009.172 Gama Sennin holding a basket and toad. 

mid- 19th century. Hirado ware: porcelain with clear, 
blue, celadon, and black elazes. H. 8.0 cm 



Checklist 59 





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a 2009.174 Gama Sennin holding a basket and toad, mid- 
19th century. Sealed: Masakazu. Hirado ware; porcelain with 
matte bisque glaze and stain, H. 8.3 cm 

2009.175 Seated tiger, mid- 19th century. Hirado ware; glazed 
porcelain, H. 2.7 cm 

2009. 1 76 Shislii lion on pedestal with loose ceramic bead 

in mouth, early 19th century. Hirado ware; glazed porcelain, 
H. 4.0 cm 

2009.177 Cracked chestnut, mid-19th century, Hirado ware; 
glazed porcelain, H. 3.1 cm 

2009.178 Crouching shislii lion with loose ceramic bead in 
mouth, early 19th century. Hirado ware; glazed porcelain, 

H. 2.5 cm 

2009.179 Seated Daruma, mid- 1 9th century. Hirado ware; 
porcelain with clear and light blue glazes, H. 3.5 cm 

2009.180 Kidney-shaped manjii with relief of shislii lion 
and peony, mid-1 9th century. Hirado ware; porcelain with 
clear, blue, and brown glazes, L. 3.4 cm 

2009.181 Shislii lion recumbent on a pillow, late 19th 
century. Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, gray, and bisque 
glazes, H. 2.7 cm 

2009.182 Peach, mid- 19th century. Hirado ware; porcelain 
with blue, brown, and celadon glazes and silver enamel. 

L. 4.2 cm 

2009.183 Rat emerging from a chestnut, late 19th century. 
Hirado ware; porcelain with clear glaze and blue underglaze 
(sometsuke). H. 2.7 cm 

d 2009.184 Okame, mid- 19th century. Signed: Dohachi 
(TMin'ami Dohachi, 1783-1855). Hirado ware; porcelain with 
clear, blue, and brown glazes. H. 2.3 cm 

2009.185 Spider on a rock, late 18th century. Hirado ware; 
porcelain with clear, blue, and brown glazes, L. 4.1 cm 

2009.187 Recumbent karako child. mid-19th century. Hirado 
ware; porcelain with clear, blue, and brown glazes, H. 2.5 cm 

2009.188 Monkey on a horse, mid- 19th century. Hirado 
ware; porcelain with clear, blue, and brown glazes, H. 3.8 cm 

2009.190 Tiger on bamboo, early 19th century. Hirado ware; 
porcelain with clear and brown glazes, H. 6.0 cm 



60 



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£^f# 




■ 
14 







2009.191 Child holding a boar, mid- 1 9th century. Hirado 

ware; porcelain with clear, blue, and gray glazes, H. 4.2 cm 

2009.192 Shoki, the demon queller. mid- 1 9th century. 
Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, bisque, blue, and brown 
glazes, L. 5.6 cm 

2009.193 Monkey sitting on a rock, mid- 19th century. 
Hirado ware; porcelain with blue, brown, and gra_\ glazes. 
H. 4.5 cm 

2009.194 Karako child lying on a hobbyhorse, mid-19th 
century. Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, bisque, blue, 
brown, and gray glazes, L. 5.2 cm 

2009.195 Monkey resting on a chestnut. mid-I9th century. 
Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, brown, and gray glazes. 



2009.196 Spider on an aubergine, mid- 19th century. 
Hirado ware; porcelain with blue, brown, and gray glazes. 
L. 4.3 cm 

2009.197 Shoki, the demon queller. late 19th century. 
Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, blue, brown, and gray 
glazes, H. 5.1 cm 

2009.199 Hotei carrying a treasure bag. mid- 19th century. 
Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, blue, and bisque glazes. 
L. 4.2 cm 

2009.200 Manju with relief of shishi lion and peonies. 

mid- 19th century. Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, blue, 
and brown glazes, Diam. 4.6 cm 

2009.201 Jurojin with deer, mid-1 9th century. Hirado ware; 
porcelain with clear, blue, and gray glazes. H. 3.8 cm 

2009.202 Manju in shape of Hotei with treasure bag. late 
19th century. Hirado ware; porcelain with clear and blue glazes. 
H. 3.0 cm ' 

2009.210 Shoki, the demon queller. mid- 19th century. 
Hirado ware; porcelain with bisque, black, brown, and 
celadon glazes, H. 5.5 cm 

2009.21 1 Jurojin, mid- 19th century. Hirado ware: porcelain 
with bisque, black, brown, and celadon glazes. H. 4.3 cm 

2009.214 Cicada on a pinecone. early 19th century. Hirado 
ware; porcelain with brown and celadon glazes. H. 3.0 cm 

2009.215 Bee on a pinecone. late 19th century. Hirado ware: 
porcelain with brown and celadon glazes. L. 4.2 cm 



Checklist 61 



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2009.249 




2009.216 Bee on a peach, mid- 19th century. Hirado ware; 
porcelain with blue, brown, and celedon glazes, H. 3.2 cm 

2009.225 Crab on a clamshell, late 19th century. Hirado 
ware; porcelain with clear and brown glazes, L. 3.7 cm 

2009.232 Minogame tortoise, late 19th century. Hirado 
ware; porcelain with clear, blue, brown, and celadon glazes, 
L. 4.3 cm 

2009.234 Standing dog with articulated paws, late 19th 
century. Hirado ware; porcelain with clear, blue, and brown 
glazes, H. 5.5 cm 

2009.235 Sitting dog, late 19th century. Hirado ware; 
porcelain with clear and blue glazes, H. 2.4 cm 

2009.236 Stylized mum flowers and leaves, mid- 19th 
century. Hirado ware; glazed porcelain, L. 3.6 cm 

2009.237 Minogame tortoise, mid- 19th century. Hirado 
ware; porcelain with blue glaze, L. 4.6 cm 

2009.248 Frog on a seedpod, mid- 19th century. Hirado 
ware; porcelain with green and brown glazes, L. 3.3 cm 

2009.249 Seated cat, late 19th century. Hirado ware; 
porcelain with clear, blue, and red glazes, L. 3.3 cm 

2009.251 Crouching tiger, mid-19th century. Hirado ware; 
porcelain with brown glaze, H. 3.8 cm 

2009.252 Skull, late 19th century. Hirado ware; porcelain 
with matte bisque glaze, H. 3.1 cm 







2009.73 Embracing couple inside clamshell, mid- 
19th century. Imari ware; porcelain with polychrome 
overglazes, L. 5.0 cm 

2009.124 Monkey trainer, mid- 19th century. Imari ware; 
porcelain with polychrome overglazes and enamel, 
H. 5.4 cm 

2009.140 Sleeping cat, late 19th century. Imari ware; 
porcelain with polychrome glazes, L. 4.8 cm 



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2009.173 Standing rakan, mid- 19th century. Imari ware; 
porcelain with polychrome overglazes, H. 7.7 cm 

2009.221 Square manjii with perforated surface and 
obscured tortoise, mid- 19th century. Imari ware; porcelain 
with polychrome overglazes, W. 4.2 cm 

2009.222 Recumbent elephant, early 19th century. Imari 
ware; porcelain with polychrome overglazes. L. 4.6 cm 

2009.259 Spotted puppy, late 19th century. Imari ware; 
porcelain with polychrome overglazes, L. 3.7 cm 



2009.230 Oval manjii with relief of shishi lion and 
peonies, late 19th century. Kakiemon ware; porcelain 
with polychrome glazes, L. 4.7 cm 



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d 2009.138 Hand warmer, mid- 19th century. Sealed: Kutani. 
Kutani ware; porcelain with green, purple, and yellow glazes. 
H. 2.6 cm 

2009.139 Parrot, mid- 19th century. Kutani ware: porcelain 
with green, purple, and yellow glazes, H. 3.6 cm 

2009.227 Clamshell, late 19th century. Kutani ware: 
porcelain with polychrome glazes and gold enamel. W. 3.9 cm 

2009.254 Hexagon-shaped manjii. late 19th century. 
Kutani ware; porcelain with polychrome glazes. W. 4.2 cm 



Checklist 63 





d 2009.78 Square munju with dragon motif, mid-1 9th 
century. Signed: [undeciphered]. Kyoto ware; porcelain with 
clear glaze and blue underglaze (sometsuke), W. 5.5 cm 

2009.79 Square disc with dragon motif, early 19th century. 
Kyoto ware; porcelain with clear glaze and blue underglaze 
(sometsuke), W. 4.0 cm 

d 2009.83 Shishimai child dancer lifting a lion mask, late 
1 9lh century. Sealed: Ninsei (after Nonomura Ninsei, active 
about 1646-1694). Kyoto ware; porcelain with polychrome 
overglazes and gold enamel, H. 5.5 cm 

2009.90 Beetle on a leaf, late 19th century. Kyoto ware; 
soft paste with polychrome glazes, L. 4.0 cm 

d 2009.94 Recumbent boar on a pedestal, late 19th century. 
Sealed: Ei (possibly by Eiraku Wazen, 1823-1896). Kyoto 
ware, Raku style; glazed stoneware, L. 4.1 cm 

d 2009.95 Stylized bear, late 19th century. Sealed: Ei 
(possibly by Eiraku Wazen, 1823-1896). Kyoto ware, Raku 
style; glazed stoneware, H. 5.7 cm 

2009.96 Tangerine (mikan) with decorative design, late 
19th century. Signed: [undeciphered]. Kyoto ware; porcelain 
with clear glaze and blue underglaze (sometsuke), L. 4.5 cm 

□ 2009.98 Peach-shaped sake cup, early 20th century. 
Signed: Miura Chikusen (Miura Chikusen II, 1882-1920). 
Kyoto ware; porcelain with clear glaze and blue underglaze 
(sometsuke), H. 2.2 cm 

2009.101 Gama Sennin with toad on sleeve, mid-19th 
century. Kyoto ware; porcelain with blue, brown, and gray 
glazes and gold enamel, H. 4.8 cm 

2009.103 Lotus pod with articulated seeds, mid- 19th 
century. Kyoto ware; porcelain with clear glaze and blue 
underglaze (sometsuke) and paulownia wood, L. 3.5 cm 

d 2009.109 Fukurokuju being shaved by a tanuki. late 
19th century. Sealed: Wahei (Wahei workshop, active 
1880-1910). Kyoto ware; earthenware with polychrome 
glazes, H. 5.5 cm 

a 2009.1 10 Tanuki in samurai dress, late 19th century. 
Sealed: Wahei (Wahei workshop, active 1880-1910). 
Kyoto ware; earthenware with polychrome glazes, H. 6.4 cm 



Checklist 





,^g2£r 





d 2009.1 1 1 Tanuki in long-sJeeved kimono and straw hat. 
late 19th century. Scaled: Wahei (Wahei workshop, active 
1880-1910). Kyoto ware; earthenware with polychrome 



d 2009.1 12 Tanuki in peasant's clothes, late 19th century. 
Sealed: Wahei (Wahei workshop, active 1880-1910). Kyoto 
ware; earthenware w ith polychrome gla/es. H. 5.3 cm 

a 2009. 1 I 3 Tanuki dressed as a courtesan, late 1 9th century. 
Sealed: Wahei (Wahei workshop, active 1880-1910). Kyoto 
ware; earthenware with polychrome glazes, H. 4.8 cm 

2009.1 14 Oni chanting prayers, late 19th century. Attributed: 
Wahei workshop, active 1880-1910. Kyoto ware; earthenware 
with polychrome glazes, H. 6.1 cm 

2009.1 15 Fukurokuju. late 19th century. Kyoto ware: 
earthenware with polychrome glazes, H. 5.9 cm 

a 2009. 1 1 9 Standing Buddha, mid- 1 9th century. Signed: 
[undeciphered]. Kyoto ware; black earthenware. H. 5.7 cm 

2009.120 Standing Daruma, mid- 19th century. Kyoto ware: 
paste with red glaze, H. 4.7 cm 

2009.121 Standing Okame, mid- 19th century. Kyoto ware; 
porcelain with polychrome glazes, H. 4.7 cm 

a 2009.122 Standing Okame. late 19th century. Sealed: Seifu 
(SeifuYohei III, 1851-1914). Kyoto ware: porcelain with 
polychrome glazes, H. 4.2 cm 

2009.123 Standing Okame, late 19th century. Kyoto ware: 
earthenware with polychrome glazes, H. 4.4 cm 

a 2009.125 Seated Daruma, mid- 19th century. Sealed: 
[undeciphered]. Kyoto ware; earthenware with red glaze. 
H. 3.4 cm 

d 2009.127 Square manju with design of crane and pine 
tree, mid- 19th century. Signed: lppei tsukuru. Kyoto ware: 
earthenware with polychrome glazes, YV. 3.4 cm 

2009.128 Manju with dragon design in relief. mid-19th 
century. Kyoto ware; porcelain with brown and celadon 
glazes, Diam. 3.8 cm 

2009.129 Clamshell, early 19th century. Kyoto ware: 
porcelain with polychrome glazes and gold enamel. L. 4. - cm 

2009.132 Aubergine, mid- 19th century. Signed: Seiji tsukuru. 

Kyoto ware; earthenware w ith blue and w hite elazes. L. 6.9 cm 



Checklist 65 




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2009.141 Seated komainu guardian lion-dog, mid-19th 
century. Sealed: Kairukuen. Kyoto ware; porcelain with purple 
glaze, H. 4.3 cm 

2009.142 Rooster, mid- 19th century. Kyoto ware; earthenware 
with polychrome overglaze, H. 3.7 cm 

d 2009. 1 44 Fox priest, early 1 9th century. Sealed: Eiraku 
(possibly by Eiraku Tokuzen, 1853-1909). Kyoto ware; 
painted earthenware, H. 4.5 cm 

o 2009.145 Okame pleasuring herself. mid-19th century. 
Sealed: Dohachi (after Nin'ami Dohachi, 1783-1855). 
Kyoto ware; porcelain with polychrome glazes, H. 3.2 cm 

d 2009.155 Gourd-shaped bottle with ivory stopper and 
fitting, mid- 19th century. Signed: Keman (after Ogata Kenzan, 
1663-1743). Kyoto ware; earthenware with polychrome glazes 
and ivory, H. 4.7 cm 

2009. 1 56 Beetle on maple leaf, mid-1 9th century. Kyoto ware; 
porcelain with matte-brown and celadon glazes, L. 6.2 cm 

2009.158 Onigawara, late 19th century. Kyoto ware; porcelain 
with celadon glaze, L. 5.5 cm 

o 2009.159 Seagull, late 19th century. Sealed: Eiraku (possibly 
by Eiraku Tokuzen, 1853-1909). Kyoto ware; porcelain with 
celadon glaze, H. 3.1 cm 

2009.161 Flying on; demon. mid-19th century. Kyoto ware; 
porcelain with celadon and matte-brown glazes, L. 5.0 cm 

d 2009.167 Mask of Okame, early 20th century. Sealed: Yoshiro 
and Signed: Kyo Maruyama Hironoya. Kyoto ware; earthenware 
with clear glaze and red and black underglazes, H. 4.7 cm 

2009.186 Karako child with monkey, early 20th century. 
Kyoto ware; porcelain with clear glaze and blue underglaze 
{sometsuke), H. 4.7 cm 

d 2009.189 Seated komainu guardian lion-dog. late 19th 
century. Signed: Dohachi (after Nin'ami Dohachi, 1783-1855). 
Kyoto ware; porcelain with clear glaze and blue underglaze 
(sometsuke), H. 4.4 cm 

a 2009.198 Seagull, late 19th century. Signed: Eiraku tsukuru 
(possibly by Eiraku Tokuzen, 1853-1909). Kyoto ware; 
porcelain with clear glaze and blue underglaze (sometsuke), 
H. 3.1 cm 

2009.204 Man in kimono holding a lantern, late 19th century. 
Kyoto ware; porcelain with clear glaze and blue underglaze 
(sometsuke), H. 4.2 cm 

d 2009.205 Shishi lion on engraved seal base, late 19th 
century. Signed: [undeciphered]. Kyoto ware; porcelain with 
clear ula/e and blue undertzlaze (somct'tukc), H. 3.1 cm 



Checklist 



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a 2009 .212 llotei leaning on his treasure bag. mid-19th 
century. Signed: Kyokutci. Kyoto ware; glazed and unglazed 
porcelain, H. 3.2 cm 

a 2009.213 Daruma with amorous couple, earl) 19th 

century. Signed: '.'.' tsukuru. Kyoto ware; earthenware with 
celadon glaze, H. 4.2 cm 

2009.217 Fukurokuju. early 19th century. Kyoto ware; 
earthenware with white and light green glazes. H. 4.2 cm 

2009.218 Okame, mid- 19th century. Kyoto ware; earthenware 
with polychrome glazes, H. 3.3 cm 

a 2009.219 Fukurokuju, late 19th century. Sealed: 
Ji;*/R'/ ( Wahei workshop, active 1880-1910). Kyoto ware: 
earthenware with polychrome glazes, H. 3.7 cm 

a 2009.220 Chinese literati on engraved seal base, early 

20th century. Seal reads: Kolobuki. Kyoto ware; earthenware 
with polychrome glazes and gold enamel. H. 4.2 cm 

a 2009.223 Monkey with peach, mid- 19th century. Signed: 
Dohachi (Nin'ami Dohachi, 1788-1855). Kyoto ware; 
earthenware with polychrome glazes. H. 3.5 cm 

2009.224 Seated monkey, late 18th century. Kyoto ware: 
earthenware with polychrome glazes, H. 3.2 cm 

a 2009.228 Clamshell, late 19th century. Sealed: Eiraku 
(possibley by Eiraku Tokazen, 1853-1909). Kyoto ware: 
earthenware with polychrome glazes andgofiin, L. 4.2 cm 

2009.229 Amorous Okame holding a baby, mid- 19th 
century. Kyoto ware; earthenware with polychrome alazes. 
H.4.1 cm 

a 2009.231 Clamshell, mid- 19th century. Signed: Eiraku 
tsukuru (possibley by Eiraku Hozan, 1795-1854). Kyoto 
ware; porcelain with clear glaze and blue underglaze 
(sometsuke), L. 4.1 cm 

o 2009.233 Cluster of rock, flowers, and crab, mid- 19th 
century. Signed: Eiraku Hozan tsukuru (possibly by Eiraku 
Hozan. 1 795-1854). Kyoto ware; porcelain with clear, blue, 
brown, and celadon glazes. L. 3.7 cm 

d 2009.238 Mokugyo gong with confronting dragons, late 

19th century. Sealed: Eiraku (possibly by Eiraku Tokuzen, 
1853-1909). Kyoto ware; earthenware with celadon alaze. 
H. 2.7 cm 

2009.239 Fish trap, late 19th century. Kyoto ware: 
earthenware with celadon glaze. L. 4." cm 

2009.241 Seated Hotei. mid- 19th century. Kyoto ware: 
porcelain with celadon glaze. H. 3.7 cm 



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d 2009.242 Pelican, late 1 9th century. Signed: Zoroku 
(Mashimizu Zoroku, 1822-1877). Kyoto ware; earthenware 
with celadon glaze. L. 4.7 cm 

2009.244 Manju, early 20th century. Kyoto ware; 
earthenware with polychrome glazes and gold enamel. 
Diam. 4.0 cm 

d 2009.245 Stylized shishi lion, late 1 9th century. Signed: 
Eiraku (Eiraku Myozen, 1852-1927). Kyoto ware; 
earthenware with purple and green glazes. L. 3.6 cm 

a 2009.246 Turtle, late 19th century. Signed: Eiraku (Eiraku 
Myozen, 1852-1927). Kyoto ware; earthenware with yellow 
and green glazes. L. 3.9 cm 

□ 2009.250 Hare, mid- 19th century. Sealed: Raku (possibly 
by Raku Keinyu. 1817-1902). Kyoto ware, Raku style: 
glazed earthenware with pink underglaze. H. 2.9 cm 

a 2009.253 Seated monkey, late 19th century. Signed: 
Meizan. Kyoto ware: earthenware with celadon glaze. 
11.4.4 cm' 

2009.258 Reclining shishi lion, late 19th century- Kyoto 
ware; earthenware with brown and gray glazes. L. 4.8 cm 

2009.260 Inuhariko (toy dog), late 19th century. Kyoto 
ware; painted earthenware, L. 4.5 cm 

a 2009.263 Tanuki, late 19th century. Sealed: Uahei (Wahei 
workshop, active 1880-1910). Kyoto ware: earthenware with 
red and brown glazes, H. 3.8 cm 

2009.264 Bugaku mask of Ran 6-6. late 19th century. 
Kyoto ware: earthenware with brown glaze. H. 3.7 cm 



2009.157 Recumbent shishi lion, early 19th century. 
Nabeshima ware; porcelain with celadon glaze. H. 3.7 cm 



2009.162 Recumbent shishi lion, mid- 19th century. 
Nabeshima ware; porcelain with celadon glaze. L. 5.4 cm 



Checklist 




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2009.272 




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a 2009.265 Mask of Ebisu, late 1 9th-early 20th century. 
Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I, 1848-1927). Onko 
ware; red earthenware with light green glaze. H. 5.0 cm 

d 2009.266 Mask of Shikami, 20th century. Sealed: Sekiho 
(Shimizu Sekiho, 1889-1971). Onko ware; unglazed red 
earthenware, H. 4.6 cm 

d 2009.267 No mask, late I9th-early 20th century. 
Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I, 1848-1927). 
Onko ware; unglazed red earthenware, H. 4.8 cm 

d 2009.268 No mask, late 19th-early 20th century. 
Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I, 1848-1927). 
Onko ware; unglazed red earthenware, H. 4.6 cm 

2009.269 Bugaku mask, late 1 9th-early 20th century. 
Onko ware; unglazed red earthenware. H. 4.5 cm 

d 2009.270 Mask of I sofuki, late 19th-early 20th century. 
Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen 1. 1848-1927). Onko 
ware; unglazed red earthenware, H. 4.5 cm 

d 2009.271 No mask, late 19th-early 20th century. Sealed: 
Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen 1, 1848-1927). Onko ware; 
unglazed red earthenware, H. 4.6 cm 

2009.272 Mask of Shojo, late I9th-early 20th century. 
Onko ware; unglazed red earthenware, H. 4.8 cm 

o 2009.273 No mask, late 19th-early 20th century. Sealed: 
Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I, 1 848-1927). Onko ware; 
unglazed red earthenware, H. 4.6 cm 

2009.274 Mask of Karasu Tengu. late 1 9th-early 20th 
century. Onko ware; unglazed red earthenware. H. 4.5 cm 

o 2009.275 Mask of an oni, late 19th-early 20th century. 
Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I, 1848-1927). Onko 
ware; unglazed red earthenware, H. 4.7 cm 

d 2009.276 Mask of Kotokuraku, 20th century. Sealed: 
Sekiho (Shimizu Sekiho. 1889-1971 ). Onko ware; unglazed 
red earthenware, H. 4.8 cm 

a 2009.277 Mask of Korobase, 20th century. Sealed: 
Sekiho (Shimizu Sekiho, 1889-1971 ). Onko ware; red 
earthenware with white glaze, H. 4.7 cm 

a 2009.278 Mask of Ikazuchi, 20th century. Sealed: Sekiho 
(Shimizu Sekiho, 1889-1971 ). Onko ware: unglazed red 
earthenware, H. 4.7 cm 

a 2009.279 Mask of a monkey (saru), late I9th-early 20th 
century. Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I, 1848-1927). 
Onko ware; earthenware with stain, H. 4.6 cm 



Checklist 69 



2009.280 p 200^.2X1 d 2009.282 o 

T W 

2009.283 □ 2009.284 a 2009.285 a 




— mm 



f M 



a 2009.280 Mask of Okame, late 19th-early 20th century. 
Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen II, 1876-1939). Onko ware; 
red earthenware with black glaze, H. 4.8 cm 

d 2009.281 Mask Ninomai-emimen, 20th century. Sealed: 
Sekiho (Shimizu Sekiho, 1889-1971 ). Onko ware; red 
earthenware with white glaze, H. 4.8 cm 

a 2009.282 Mask of Karasu Tengu, late 1 9th-early 20th 
century. Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I, 1848-1927). 
Onko ware; red earthenware with white glaze, H. 4.6 cm 

a 2009.283 Mask of an oni, 20th century. Sealed: Sekiho 
(Shimizu Sekiho, 1889-1971 ). Onko ware; red earthenware 
with white glaze, H. 4.6 cm 

d 2009.284 Mask of a fox (kitsune), late 19th-early 20th 
century. Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I, 1848-1927). 
Onko ware; red earthenware with white glaze, H. 4.5 cm 

a 2009.285 Mask of Okina, 20th century. Sealed: Sekiho 
(Shimizu Sekiho, 1889-1971 ). Onko ware; earthenware with 
white glaze, H. 4.8 cm 

d 2009.286 Mask of Nasori, late 19th-early 20th century. 
Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen 1, 1848-1927). Onko ware; 
unglazed red earthenware, H. 4.1 cm 

a 2009.287 Mask of Genjoraku. late 19th-early 20th 
century. Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I, 1848-1927). 
Onko ware; unglazed red earthenware, H. 4.8 cm 

2009.288 Mask of a skull (dokuro), late 19th-early 20th 
century. Onko ware; red earthenware with white glaze. 
H. 4.8 cm 

d 2009.289 Mask of a skull (dokuro). late 19th-early 20th 
century. Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I, 1848-1927). 
Onko ware; red earthenware with white glaze, H. 4.7 cm 

d 2009.290 Mask of Fudo. late 19th-early 20th century. 
Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen 1, 1848-1927). Onko ware; 
earthenware with white glaze and stain, H. 4.4 cm 

d 2009.291 Fishface mask, late 19th-early 20th century. 
Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen II, 1876-1939). Onko ware; 
red earthenware with white glaze and stain, H. 4.1 cm 



Checklist 



't. ^ 



iUUV.l 18 D 




jggjgj 



a 2009.1 IX Pipe, mid- 1 9th century. Signed: Zoroku 
(Mashimi/u Zoroku, 1822-1877;. Onbe ware; 
earthenware w ith green and brown glazes, L. 6.3 cm 



2009.163 Mask of Ranryo-O, late 19th century. 
Sanda ware; porcelain with celadon glaze, H. 5.1 cm 



2009.164 Mask of Karasu Tengu. late 19th century. 
Sanda ware; porcelain with celadon glaze, H. 4.9 cm 



2009.165 Mask of Ikazuchi, late 19th century. 
Sanda ware; porcelain with celadon glaze. H. 4.9 cm 



2009.240 Turtle shell, mid- 19th century. Sanda ware: 
porcelain with celadon glaze. L. 3.7 cm 




2009.130 Kagamibuta with floral motif, late 19th century. 
Satsuma ware; earthenware with polychrome glazes and 
gold enamel, paulownia wood, Diam. 4.2 cm 




2009.66 Lynn Richardson (American, born 1942). 
Persimmon, 2009. Arita ware; glazed porcelain with orange 
overglaze enamel; H. 2.8 cm 

d 2009.107 Armin Miiller (American. 1932-2000). Carp. 
1999. Signed: Sui. Porcelain with clear glaze and blue 
underglaze (sometsuke). inlaid glass. L. 5.3 cm 



Checklist 71 



(j) fi£ 



2009.74 ( 1 ) 



I '&£ 






' 





2009.74 Signed: Kotobuki and Shonzui. European trade 
ship, mid- 19th century. Hirado ware 

2009.78 Signed: [undeciphered]. Square manju with dragon 
motif, mid- 19th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.83 Sealed: Ninsei (after Nonomura Ninsei, active about 
1646-1694). Shishimai child dancer lifting a lion mask, 

late 1 9th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.88 Signed: Kenya (Miura Kenya, 1821-1989). 
Square manju of Okame. mid- 19th century. Edo ware 

2009.89 Sealed: Kan (Ogawa Haritsu, 1663-1747). 
Kagamibuta with Daruma holding a whisk, mid-1 8th 
century. Edo ware 

2009.93 Signed: Kenya (Miura Kenya. 1821-1889). 
Elephant on a decorative pedestal, mid- 19th century. 
Edo ware 

2009.94 Sealed: Ei (possibly by Eiraku Wazen. 1823-1896). 
Recumbent boar on a pedestal, late 19th century. Kyoto 
ware, Raku style 

2009.95 Sealed: Ei (possibly by Eiraku Wazen. 1823-1896). 
Stylized bear, late 19th century. Kyoto ware, Raku style 

2009.98 Signed: Miura Chikusen (Miura Chikusen 11. 
1882-1920). Peach-shaped sake cup, early 20th century. 
Kyoto ware 

2009.104 Signed: Dai mei koku ka ?? tsukuru. Gourd- 
shaped bottle with metal stopper, mid- 19th century. 
Hirado ware 

2009.107 Signed: Sui (Armin Muller. American. 1932-2000). 
Carp, 1999 

2009.109 Sealed: Wahei (Wahei workshop, active 1880— 
1910). Fukurokuju being shaved by a tanuki, late 19th 
century. Kyoto ware 

2009.1 10 Sealed: Wahei (Wahei workshop, active 1880- 
1910). Tanuki in samurai dress, late 19th century. 
Kyoto ware 

2009.1 1 1 Sealed: Wahei (Wahei workshop, active 1880- 
1910). Tanuki in long-sleeved kimono and straw hat. 

late 1 9th century. Kyoto ware 



Checklist 















i 






u 



2009.1 12 Scaled: Wahei (Wahei workshop, active 1880- 
1910). Tanuki'm peasant's clothes, late 19th century. 
Kyoto ware 

2009.1 13 Scaled: Wahei (Wahei workshop, active 1880 
1910). Tanuki dressed as a courtesan, late 1 9th century. 



2009. 1 1 X Signed: Zoroku ( Mashimizu Zoroku, 1 822-1877). 
Pipe, mid- 19th century. Oribe ware 

2009. 119 Signed: [undeciphered]. Standing Buddha. 

mid-1 9th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.122 Sealed: Seifu (Seifu Yohei 111. 1851-1914). 
Standing Okame, late 1 9th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.125 Signed: [undeciphered]. Seated Daruma. 
mid- 19th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.126 Sealed: Bunko. Manjft in the form of a stylized 
chrysanthemum, mid-1 9th century. Banko ware 

2009.127 Signed: Ippei tsukuru. Square manjft with design 
of crane and pine tree, mid- 19th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.132 Signed: Seiji tsukuru. Aubergine, mid- 19th century. 
Kyoto ware 

2009.137 Signed: Dai mei koku ka '.'.' tsukuru. Gourd-shaped 
bottle with metal stopper, mid- 19th century. Hirado ware 

2009.138 Sealed: Kutani. Hand warmer, mid- 19th century. 
Kutani ware 

2009.141 Scaled: Kairakuen (Kairakuen Garden kiln). Seated 
komainu guardian lion-dog. late 19th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.143 Signed: Kenya tsukuru (Miura Kenya. 1821-1889). 
Cylinder with image of Fukurokuju. late 1 9th century. Edo 
ware 

2009.144 Sealed: Eiraku (possibly by Eiraku Tokuzen. 1853- 
1909). Fox priest, early 19th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.145 Sealed: Dohachi (after Nin'ami Dohachi. 1 783- 
1855). Okame pleasuring herself, mid- 19th century. 
Kyoto ware 



Checklist 73 




( 



£& 




'*. 



2009.147 Signed: Kenya (Miura Kenya. 1821-1889). 

Oni reading Buddhist sutras. mid- 19th century. Edo ware 

2009.148 Signed: Teiji (Kawamoto Teiji, active mid-19th 
century). Kappa in an eel trap, mid- 19th century. Edo ware 

2009.149 Signed: Teiji (Kawamoto Teiji. active mid- 19th 
century). Raijin, the god of thunder. mid-19th century. 
Edo ware 

200'-). 150 Signed: Teiji (Kawamoto Teiji, active mid- 19th 
century). Frog on a lotus pod. mid- 19th century. Edo ware 

2004.151 Signed: Teiji (Kawamoto Teiji, active mid- 19th 
century). Frog on a lotus leaf, mid- 19th century. Edo ware 

2009.152 Signed: Teiji (Kawamoto Teiji. active mid-19th 
century). Turtle, mid-1 9th century. Edo ware 

2009.153 Signed: Teiji (Kawamoto Teiji. active mid-19th 
century). Seated man with basket and cat. late 19th century. 
Edo ware 

2009.154 Signed: Kanji. Octopus pot. late 19th century. 
Edo ware 

2009.155 Signed: Kenzan (after Ogata Kenzan. 1663-1743). 
Gourd-shaped bottle with ivory stopper and fitting, mid- 
19th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.159 Sealed: Eiraku (possibly by Eiraku Tokuzen. 1853- 
1909). Seagull, late 19th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.166 Signed: [undeciphered]. Hann\a mask, late 19th 
century. Hirado ware 

2009.167 Sealed: Yoshiro and Signed: Kyo Maruyama 
Hironoya. Mask of Okame. early 20th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.174 Sealed: Masakazu. Gama Sennin holding a 
basket and toad, mid- 19th century. Hirado ware 

2009.189 Signed: Dohachi (after Nin'ami Dohachi. 
1783-1855). Seated komainu guardian lion-dog. late 19th 
century. Kyoto ware 



2009.189 



Checklist 



i 



:( 




■MHM 




2009.198 Signed: Eiraku tsukuru (possibly by Eiraku 
Tokuzen, 1853-1909). Seagull, late 19th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.205 Signed: [undeciphered\. Shishi lion on engraved 
seal base, late 19th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.212 Signed: Kyokutei. Hotei leaning on his treasure 
bag, mid- 19th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.213 Signed: ?? tsukuru. Daruma with amorous couple. 

early 1 9th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.219 Sealed: Wahei (Wahei workshop, active 1880- 
1910). Fukurokuju. late 19th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.220 Seal reads: Kotobuki. Chinese literati on engraved 
seal base, early 20th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.223 Signed: Dohachi (Nin'ami Dohachi. 1788-1855). 
Monkey with peach, mid- 19th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.226 Sealed: Banko. Mokugyo gong with confronting 

dragons, late 19th century. Banko ware 

2009.228 Sealed: Eiraku (possibly by Eiraku Tokuzen. 
1853-1909). Clamshell, late 19th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.231 Signed: Eiraku tsukuru (possibly by Eiraku Hozan. 
1795-1854). Clamshell, mid- 19th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.233 Signed: Eiraku Hozan tsukuru (possibly by Eiraku 
Hozan. 1795-1854). Cluster of rock, flowers, and crab. 
mid- 19th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.238 Sealed: Eiraku (possibly by Eiraku Tokuzen. 1853- 
1909). Mokugyo gong with confronting dragons, late 19th 
century. Kyoto ware 

2009.242 Signed: Zoroku (Mashimizu Zoroku, 1822-1877). 
Pelican, late 19th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.245 Signed: Eiraku (Eiraku Myozen. 1852-192"). 
Stylized shishi lion, late 19th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.246 Signed: Eiraku (Eiraku Myozen, 1852-192"). 
Turtle, late 19th century. Kyoto ware 



Checklist 75 




2009.250 Sealed: Raku (possibly by Raku Keinyu, 1817- 
1402). Hare, mid-1 9th century. Kyoto ware, Raku style 

2009.253 Sealed: Meizan. Seated monkey, late 19th century. 
Kyoto ware 

2009.255 Signed: Kenya (Miura Kenya. 1821-1889). 
Inuhariko (toy dog), late 19th century. Edo ware 

2009.256 Signed: Bunko. Peasant woman with begging 
bowl, mid- 19th century. Banko ware 

2009.257 Sealed: Banko Fueki. Tanuki inside a chestnut, 

late 19th century. Banko ware 

2009.263 Sealed: Wahei (Wahei workshop, active 1880- 
1910). Tanuki, late 19th century. Kyoto ware 

2009.265 Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I, 1848-1927). 
Mask of Ebisu, lute 19th-early 20th century. Onko ware 

2009.266 Sealed: Sekiho (Shimizu Sekiho, 1889-1971 ) 
Mask of Shikame. 20th century. Onko ware 

2009.267 Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I, 1848-1927). 
No mask, late 19th-early 20th century. Onko ware 

2009.268 Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen 1, 1848-1927). 
No mask, late 19th-early 20th century. Onko ware 

2009.270 Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen 1, 1848-1927). 
Mask of Isokuki, late 19th-early 20th century. Onko ware 

2009.271 Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen 1. 1848-1927). 
No mask, late 19th-early 20th century. Onko ware 

2009.273 Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I, 1848-1927). 
No mask, late 19th-early 20th century. Onko ware 

2009.275 Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I, 1848-1927). 
Mask of an oni. late 19th-early 20th century. Onko ware 

2009.276 Sealed: Sekiho (Shimizu Sekiho. 1889-1971). 
Mask of Kotokuraku. 20th century. Onko ware 



Checklist 










2009.277 Sealed: Sekiho (Shimizu Sekiho, 1 889-1971 ). 
Mask of Korobase, 20th century. Onko ware 

2009.278 Sealed: Sekiho (Shimizu Sekiho, 1889-1971;. 
\lask of Ikazuchi, 20th century. Onko ware 

2009.279 Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I. 1848-1927). 
Mask of a monkey (saw), late 19th-early 20th century. 

( liiku ware 

2009.280 Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen II, 1876-1939). 
Mask of'Okame, late 19th-early 20th century. Onko ware 

2009.281 Sealed: Sekiho (Shimizu Sekiho, 1889-1971). 
Mask of Ninomai-emimen, 20th century. Onko ware 

2009.282 Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I, 1848-1927). 
Mask of karasu Tengu, late 19th century. Onko ware 

2009.283 Sealed: Sekiho (Shimizu Sekiho. 1889-1971). 
Mask of an oni, late 19th-early 20th century. Onko ware 

2009.284 Sealed: Sekiho (Shimizu Sekiho. 1889-1971 1. 
Mask of a fox (kitsune), 20th century. Onko ware 

2009.285 Sealed: Sekiho (Shimizu Sekiho. 1889-1971). 
Mask of Okina, 20th century. Onko w are 

2009.286 Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I. 1848-1927). 
Mask of Nasori. late 19th-early 20th century. Onko ware 

2009.287 Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I. 1848-1927). 
Mask of Genjoraku, late 19th-early 20th century. Onko ware 

2009.289 Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I, 1848-1927). 
Mask of a skull (tlokuro). kite 19th-early 20th century. 
Onko ware 

2009.290 Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen I. 1848-1927). 
Mask of Fudo, late 19th-early 20th century. Onko ware 

2009.24 1 Sealed: Sekisen (Shimizu Sekisen II. 1876-1939). 
Fishfaee mask, late 19th-earlv 20th century. Onko ware 



Checklist 77 



Glossary of Selected Terms from the Checklist 



Bakemono A shapeshifting goblin or spirit that takes human-like form. 

Bugaku A form of masked dance, traditionally performed at the Japanese imperial court. 

Chin dog An ancient breed of lap dog in China, similar to a Pekingese. 

Daikoku The god of commerce and agriculture; one of the Seven Gods of Good Fortune of 

Japanese legend. Identified by his wide, smiling face, fleshy ears, and floppy hat. 

Daruma An Indian monk of the fifth or sixth century who founded Zen Buddhism; also known 

as Bodhidharma in Sanskirt. 

Ebisu The god of good fortune and of fishermen; one of the Seven Gods of Good Fortune. He 

is usually identified by his peasant's attire and fishing pole, and is often shown with a 
large sea bream (tai). 

Fudo "The Immovable One;" a Buddhist deity. His fierce expression warns of his wrath against 

enemies of enlightenment and wisdom, and is thought to frighten people into believing. 

Fukurokuju The god of wealth, happiness, and longevity; one of the Seven Gods of Good Fortune. His 

name combines the characters for "Happiness," "Wealth," and "Longevity." Identified 
by his high, domed, bald head and long beard. 

Gama Sennin One of the Chinese Immortals (or sages) of Daoism; Gama (meaning "toad") Sennin is 

usually depicted with one or more toads, which provide him with magical powers. 

Genjoraku A Bugaku dance piece that represents a heroic figure fighting a poisonous snake. Masks 

from this work often feature a moveable jaw. 

Gofun A white pigment made of calcium carbonate powder derived from seashells. 

Hannya A mask type that was used in traditional No and Kyogen theater. Represents a horned 

female demon, used in plays and dances to represent the destructive power of jealousy. 

Hotei The god of happiness; one of the Seven Gods of Good Fortune. He is identified by his 

round face and belly and the treasure bag he carries full of items of good fortune. 

Ikazuchi "Thunder;" a demonic character in No theater performances. 

Jurojin The god of wisdom and longevity; one of the Seven Gods of Good Fortune. Often 

depicted with a tall bald head and a long beard, and carrying a staff. Usually accompa- 
nied by a deer, a symbol of longevity. 



Kagamibuta Meaning "mirror-lidded," a type of netsuke in the form of a shallow bowl with a round, 

removable lid. 

Kappa Mischievous, child-sized water sprite of Japanese folklore, often shown with a turtle 

shell, ape-like face, and frog-like body. 

Karako child Chinese male child, usually shown with distinctive tufts of hair on an otherwise bald 

head and often dressed in a traditional Chinese pantsuit. In Japan, they symbolized an 
idealized version of childhood. 

Komainu Meaning "Korean dog," a lion-like guardian figure, usually placed in pairs at the entrance 

of temples, palaces, or tombs. 

Karasu Tengu A "crow" goblin that has the body of a man and face and beak of a crow. They were 

feared for their evil and mischievous deeds that included abducting children and adults. 

Konoha Tengu A mountain goblin with a distinctive long nose (konoha). 

Korobase Character mask used in Bugaku dance. Represents a mythical bird. 

Kotokuraku Character mask used in a comic Bugaku dance. Represents a drunken man. 

Kyogen The classical comic theater style of Japan. 

Manju A type of rounded netsuke named for a dumpling filled with sweet bean paste. 

Minogame tortoise "Thousand Year Tortoise," a symbol of longevity. It has a distinctive "tail" of seaweed 
that has grown on its shell over its long life. 

Nasori Character mask used in Bugaku dance. Represents a dragon with bulging eyes. 

Ninomai-emimen Character mask used in the comic Bugaku dance Ninomai. Represents "Smiling Face" 
(emimen), a leering old man. 

No The formal, classical drama of Japan accompanied by court music. 

Okame The Shinto goddess of fertility. Identified by her plump face, high forehead, and shaved 

eyebrows. 



Okina A distinct character type of a wise old man in the No theater that developed out of ritual 

Shinto dance performances. 

Oni A kind of mischievous demon or devil. 

Onigawara A decorative roof tile featuring a stylized oni demon face. 

Rakan "Worthy Ones;" disciples of Buddha who uphold and preserve Buddhist law until the 

coming of the Future Buddha (Miroku). 

Ranryo-6 "The Dragon King" character in Bugahi dance performances. 

Sanbaso Originating in Shinto rituals, a dance performed to the gods at celebratory occasions as 

part of the beginning of a cycle of No, Kabuki, or Bunraku (puppet) theater plays. 

Shishi Mythical guardian lion-dog of Chinese origin. Similar to the komainu. 

Shishimai The "lion dance." performed at popular festivals, including New Year's. 

Shojo A character from No theater that represents a happy, merry being overly fond of alcohol. 

Shoki "The Demon Queller;" a deity of Chinese origin who protects against evil spirits. 

Usually shown as an old man with bushy beard, wearing a scholar's hat, and carrying a 
large sword. He is often depicted fighting with oni (demons). 

Tanuki A mythical and mischievous raccoon-dog creature able to change its shape at will. 

Tsuru Sennin One of the Chinese Immortals (or sages) of Daoism; Tsuru (meaning "crane") Sennin. is 

depicted with a crane or crane's foot, which are auspicous symbols of longevity. 

Usobuki A humorous Kyogen theater mask with pursed, "whistling" lips, and large, bulging eyes. 

Often used to represent the spirits of animals or insects. 



Selected Bibliography 



Arakawa Hirokazu. The Go Collection ,,/ \elsnke. Tokui Xalianal Museum lokvo kodansha International, 1983. 

Bushell, Raymond. ■•Ceramic Nctsuke." Arts of Asia; v. 6, no. 2 (1976): 25-31. 

Camniaiin, Schuyler V. R.. ami Caroline I ranees Hiebei Snhslaiu e tin,/ . Si mho! in I 'liincse toggles ( Iniiese Hell toggles from I In < I liichci < .///, , mm 
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1962. 

Earle, Joe. Netsuke: Fantasy and Reality in Japanese Miniature Sculpture. Boston: MFA Publications, 200 1 . 

Fleischel, Robert. "Hirado Netsuke." Dartima: Japanese Art & Antiques Magazine 14: v. 4. no. 2 (1997): 43. 

Goodall. Mollis, and \ irginia ( i Alchley. The Raymond and /'ranees Bushell ( 'ollection oj \ei\uke a Legac) at the Los Ingeles ( 'ounty Museum of Art. 
Chicago: Art Media Resources, 2003. 

Jirka-Schmitz, Patrizia. The World of Netsuke: The Werdelmann Collection at the Museum Kunst Palast Diisseldorf Stuttgart, Germany: Amoldsche, 2005. 

Jonas, Frank Morris. Netsuke. Rutland, Vt.: Turtle, 1971 . 

King, David Hyatt. "Early 19th Century Porcelain Netsuke in the National Museum of Ethnology, Leiden." Andon 30; v. 8. no. 2 ( 1988 [c. 1989]): 91-98 

Lawrence, Louis. Hirado: Prince of Porcelains (Encyclopedia of Japanese Art series). Chicago: Art Media Resources, 1997. 

Morse. Edward S. ( dialogue of the Morse ( 'ol lei lion of Japanese Patten . Rutland. Vt: C . I . I utile. I l '79. 

Nihon Netsuke Kenkyukai. Netsuke: gyoshukusareta Edo hunka (Netsuke: Condensed Culture of Edo). Tokyo: Bijutsu Shuppansha. 2005. 

Noda [bshio. Hirado yaki saikumono: netsuke o chushin to shite (Small Hirado Porcelain Netsuke and Ornament of the Edo Period). Tokyo: Sojusha Bijutsu Shuppan. 1997. 

Noetzel. Otto Heinrich. Yakimono-Netsuke: Netsuke cms Porzellan unci Ton. Wilhelmshaven: Heinrichshofen. 1985. 

( >kada. liarbra I en "Japanese Netsuke and ( >]imc: From the I Icrman and Paul .Incline C ollection ol the Newark Museum." Newark Museum Quarter!) : \. 2'. no. 1-2 I l°"hi 

Okada. Barbara Teri. Netsuke: Masterpieces from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1982. 

Okada Yu/uru. \elsuke .1 Miniature In of Japan I'okyo: Japan I ra\el Bureau, 1951. 

Putney, Carolyn M. Japanese Treasures the In oj Netsuke ( \ir\ ing in die Toledo Museum of Art. Toledo, Ohio: Toledo Museum of Art, 2000. 

Silverman. Richard R. "An Over-all View of Japanese Ceramics and How They Relate to Netsuke." Andon 14; [v. 4] (1984): 1-9. 

Silverman, Richard R. "Reference Materials and Bibliography on Japanese Porcelains and Pottery, Including Porcelain Netsuke." Appraisers Information Exchange 
(1982): 3-5. 

Volker, T. The Animal in Far Eastern Art and Especially in the Art of the Japanese Netsuke, with References to Chinese Origins. Traditions. Legends, and Art. 
Leiden: Brill, 1975. 

Welch, Matthew, and Sharen Chappell. Netsuke: The Japanese Art of Miniature Carving. Minneapolis: Paragon Pub.. Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 1999. 

Wrangham, Edward Addison. "Ceramic Inro." Daruma: Japanese Art & Antiques Magazine 1 8; v. 5, no. 1-2(1 998): 38^14. 

81 i 



Index 



All Japanese names are printed in the Japanese order, family name (surname) first. 



Akasaka, 52 

alternate attendance, 20, 23nl9 
amulet, 5 1 . See also talisman 
Ansei Edo earthquake, 1 7 
Aoki Mokubei, 18 
Appreciation of Superior Sword 

Furnishings. See Soken Kisho 
Arita (city), 6 

Arita ware, 18, 20. 47-48, 55 
auspicious symbols, 26, 46, 47, 49 
bakemono, 45, 56. See also goblin 
Banko ware, 1 8, 5 1 . 55, 73, 75, 76 
Bizen ware, 8, 50, 56 
blue-and-white porcelain, 

Chinese, 26, 33 
blue-and-white porcelain, 

Japanese. See sometsuke 
boar, 25.42. 55. 61, 64 
bone, 12, 17 
Buddha, 34, 49, 65, 73 
Buddhism, 23n4, 25, 28, 30, 32, 

33,34,35,36,38,41,43,45, 

49, 50, 56. 74 
See also Zen Buddhism 
Bugaku. 68, 69 
Bushido, 34 

ceremonial dress, 14, 16 
Chin dog, 47, 56 
China, 6, 12, 18, 19, 23n4, 28, 

31,39.43,44.47.56 



Ch'ing dynasty, 12 
Chinese literati, 55, 67, 75 
Chinese mythology, 33 
Chinese ware, 47, 56 
Chinshin-ryu, 20 
Chomeiji Temple, 19 
chonin. See merchant class 
chdnin hunka, 1 3 
chui-tzu, 12 
daimyo, 20, 23nl9, 46. 

See also feudal lord 
Daoism, 29, 31, 
Daruma, 44, 50, 56, 60. 65, 67, 

72, 73, 75 
demon, 32, 36, 38, 46, 61. 66. 

See also oni 
doran. See tobacco pouches 
dragon, 25, 30, 35. 55, 58, 64, 65, 

67, 72. 75 
Echizen, 8 
Edo (city), 13, 14, 16, 17, 19,20. 

23nl9, 44 
Edo kaimono hitori annai. 

See Guide for Independent 

Shopping in Edo 
Edo period, 6, 11, 13, 18, 34, 43, 

45,49,50,51,52 
Edo ware, 18, 19, 43-46, 56-57, 

72, 73, 74, 76 
Eiraku family, 42 



Eiraku Hozan, 67, 75 
Eiraku Myozen, 68, 75 
Eiraku Tokuzen. 19, 36, 66, 67. 

73, 74 .75 
Eiraku Wazen, 42, 64, 72 
Eiraku Zengoro. 

See Eiraku Wazen 
erotica. See shunga 
Europe, 6, 16,26, 51, 57. 72 
Exposition Universelle, Paris, 51 
festivals, 14,28.49 
feudal lord, 19, 20, 23nl9. 

See also daimyo 
"floating world," 34 
frog, 26, 39, 57, 59, 62. 74 
Fujin, 46 

Fushimi Inari Shrine, 42 
Gama Sennin, 11. 16, 21, 31. 32. 

58, 59, 60, 64, 74 
Gifu Prefecture. 19,52 
glass, 8 

goblin, 32, 45. See also bakemono 
Gosanke, 37 

Guangdong Province, China, 39 
Guangzhou, China, 39 
Guide for Independent Shopping 

in Edo. 14 
Hannya, 32, 59, 74 
Heian period, 51 
himotoshi, 1 2 



Hirado (domain). 6. 20 

Hirado court painters. 3 1 

Hirado ware, 6. 8. 11, 16. 17, 18. 
20, 21, 22, 23nl2, 25-34, 42, 
47, 48. 57-62. 72. 73. 74 

Hizen Province, 6 

horn, 11, 12 

Hozan, Eiraku, 67, 75 

Hungarian shepherds. 1 2 

Iga Province, 51 

iki. 13 

Imari (city), 6 

Imari ware, 6, 18,49,62-63 

Immortals. See Sennin 

Inaba Tsuryu, 14, 17 

inro. 12. 13. 14. 16.20 

inuhariko,43,51,55,57,68,76 

ivory, 8. 9, 11, 12. 17.21.31.32. 
38, 66. 74 

Izumiyama, 8 

Japanese folklore. 38. 39, 45. 46 

Japanese mythology. 1 6, 46 

Japanese painting, 22 

jikkan jimish'u 25. See also zodiac 

Jomon culture, 8 

Kabuki theater, 28. 45 

kagamibuta, 44. 51. 56. 71. 72 

Kairakuen Garden kiln, 37, 66, 73 

Kaisuien Garden kiln. 19 

Kakiemon ware, 48, 63 



kamishimo. See ceremonial dress 

Kanji (ceramist), 45, 57, 74 

Kansai region, 14. 37 

kappa, 46, 57. 74 

karako child, 28, 33, 47, 56, 58, 

59.60,61,66 
karakuri, 21, 28, 31, 32, 35, 45 
Kasshi yawa. See Tales Begun on 

the Night of the Rat 
Katsushika Hokusai, 27 
Kawamoto Teiji, 19, 45, 46, 57, 74 
Kenzan V. See Miura Kenya 
ken yakurei. See laws regulating 

expenditures 
Kii House, 37 
Kii Province, 37 
kimono, 11, 12,39,65,66.72 
Kinoe no komatsu. 

See Young Pines 
kiseru. See pipes 
kiseru-zutsu. See pipe cases 
komainu, 37, 66, 73. 74 
Konoha Tengu, 32, 59 
Kutani ware, 18, 63, 73 
Kyogen theater, 6, 32 
Kyoto (city), 13, 14, 18, 19,29, 

31,35,36,37,38,39,40,41, 

42,50 
Kyoto ware, 1 8, 1 9, 29, 3 1 ,35-42, 

64-68, 72, 73. 74, 75, 76 



Kyushu, 6, 8. 1 9. 20 
lacquer, 19,44,45,57 
lacquerers, 14, 17, 44 
laws regulating expenditures, 

13-14 
lotus, 25, 35, 57, 64, 74 
Manchu rulers, 12 
manju, 27, 34, 35, 46, 55, 56, 60, 

61,63,64,65,68,72,73.75 
Masakazu, 3 1 , 60. 74 
Mashimizu Zoroku, 19, 50, 68, 

71,73,75 
masks, 6, 8, 9, 16,28,29,32,40, 

52,58,59,64,66,69-70,71. 

72, 74, 76-77 
Matsudaira daimyo, 46 
Matsudaira Yoshitake, 19 
Matsuo Basho, 44 
Matsuura Chinshin, 20 
Matsuura Seizan, 20 
Matsuura Takanobu, 20 
Meiji period, 37, 44 
Meiji Restoration, 16 
Meizan (ceramist), 68, 76 
merchant class, II, 13, 14 
metal smiths, 14, 17 
Mie Prefecture, 51 
Mikakawa Kozaburo, 16 
Mikawachi, 20 
Ming dynasty, 26, 33 



Mito, 36 

Miura C'hikusen II, 64, 72 

Miura Kenya, 19, 43. 44. 45. 56, 

57. 72, 73, 74, 76 
mokugyo, 30, 55, 58, 67, 75 
molds, ceramic. 6, 11. 17,21,29, 

36, 37, 40, 47, 48, 52 
Mongol aristocrats, 12 
Mongolia, 12 
monkey, 25, 28, 33, 46, 49, 58, 

59,60,61,62.66,67,68, 

69, 75, 76, 77 
Miiller, Armin, 2 1 , 22, 7 1 , 72 
Museum of Arts and Design, 

New York, 21.23n23 
Nabeshima ware, 43, 68 
Nan ban, 26 
National Museum of Ethnology. 

Leiden, 6, 23 n 12 
nenbutsu, 38 
netsuke, as fashion, 11, 13, 17, 

23n4 
netsuke carvers. 9. 14.21.31. 

See also netsukeshi 
netsuke, market for, 9. 11. 12. 

13-16. 17. 18. 19,21.28.29, 

32, 36, 47 
netsukeshi, 14. 21. 

See also netsuke carvers 
New Year. 26, 28, 30, 49 



Nin'ami Dohachi. 19.37.60.61. 

66. 67, 73, 74. 75 
Nonomura Ninsei. 18. 29. 64. 72 
No theater, 6. 28. 32. 69. 76 
obi, 12 

Ogata Kenzan. 18. 19.38.66.74 
Ogawa Haritsu. 17. 19. 44. 56. 72 
ojime, 12. 14.20 
Okame. 40. 56. 60. 65, 66. 67. 

70, 72, 73, 74, 77 
oni, 34. 36. See also demon 
Onko ware. 18. 52, 69-70. 76-77 
Oribcware. 50. 71.73 
Osaka. 13. 14. 17 
Owari, 37 
Paris Exposition 1867. See 

Exposition Universelle. Paris 
pasztorkeszseg, 12 
paulownia wood. 35. 46. 51.57. 

64.71 
Pearl Diver with Octopi 

(Katsushika Hokusai). 27 
Perry, Commodore Matthew. 1 6 
Persia, 12 

pipe cases, 13. 23n9 
pipes. 13. 16. 23n9. 50. 71,73 
poetry. 13. 34 
raccoon-dog. See tanuki 
Raijin. 46. 57. 74 
rakan. 49. 63 



83 i 



Raku family, 1 8, 4 1 , 42 
RakuKeinyu.41,68,76 

Raku ware, 18,37,41,42 

Raku style, 41, 42, 64, 68, 72,76 

Richardson. Lynn, 2 1 , 22, 71 

Ri Sanpei, 8 

Ritsuo. See Ogawa Haritsu 

Russia, 12 

iyii. See dragon 

Saga Prefecture, 6 

sagemono, 11, 12, 13, 14, 20 

saishiki, 1 7 

Sakaida Kakiemon, 48 

samurai, 13, 14, 16,32,34,39, 

44, 59, 64 
samurai code. See Bushido 
sanbaso dancer, 28, 58, 59 
Sanda ware, 71 
sankin kotai. See alternate 

attendance 
Sanno Festival, 14 
Sasaki Chojiro, 18 
Satsuma ware, 18,51,71 
Seifu Yohei III, 19,65,73 
seiji (glaze), 36, 41 
Sennin, 31. See also Gama Sennin 
Sen no Rikyu, 18 
Seto, 8 
Shekwan. Sec Shiwan 



Shiga Prefecture, 39 
Shigaraki ware, 8, 39 
Shimizu Onko, 52 
Shimizu Sekiho, 52, 69, 70, 76, 77 
Shimizu Sekisen 1, 52. 69, 71. 

76,77 
Shimizu Sekisen II, 52, 70, 77 
shi-no-ko-sho, 1 3 
Shinto, 28, 32, 40 
shishi, 25, 34, 43, 57, 60, 61, 63, 

66, 68, 75 
shishimai, 28, 29, 58, 64. 72 
Shiwan. 19,39 
shonzui. See blue-and-white 

porcelain, Chinese 
Showa period, 52 
shungcu 27, 32, 40 
Siebold, Philip Franz Balthasar 

von, 6, 16, 23nl2 
"Six Old Kilns," 8 
Soken Kisho (Inaba Tsuryu), 9, 

14, 17 
some/Mike, 6, 19, 35, 36, 37, 47, 

55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 64, 66, 

67,71 
stag antler, 8, 12 
surimono, 13 
Tales Begun on the Night of the 

Rat (Matsuura Seizan), 20 



talisman, 33, 43. See also amulet 

Tanba, 8 

Tani Buncho, 19 

tanuki, 39. 55, 64, 65, 68, 72, 

73, 76 
tea ceremony, 18, 20, 34, 41 
Tenpo Reforms, 1 3 
Tibet. 12 

"three houses." See Gosanke 
Toad Immortal. See Gama Sennin 
tobacco, 11-12, 13, 14, 16 
tobacco pouches, 13 14, 16 
tohako-ire. See tobacco pouches 
toggles, 11,12 
Tokoname, 8 
Tokugawa Harutomi, 35 
Tokugawa shogunate, 13, 16, 19, 

23nl9, 37 
Tokyo, 7, 8, 13, 14, 14,46 
ukiyo-e, 14,22,27,34,45. 

See also woodblock prints 
wabi-sabi, 12 
Wahei workshop, 19, 38, 39, 64, 

65, 68, 72, 73, 75, 76 
"warrior's tea ceremony." See 

Chinshin-ryu 
wood, 8, 9, 11. 12, 17. 19,21.30, 

35. See also paulownia wood 



woodblock prints, 8, 13. 14. 22. 

27. 34. See also ukiyo-e 

and surimono 
World's Fair. Paris 1878. 16 
World's Fair. Philadelphia 1876. 16 
Yayoi culture, 8 
Yoshimura Shuzan, 1 7 
Yoshiro (ceramist), 40, 66, 74 
Yoshu Chikanobu. 14 
Young Pines, 27 
Yuan dynasty, 6, 1 2 
Zen Buddhism, 44, 49, 50 
Zengoro family, 36 
zodiac, 25, 27, 35,41,42,48,58 




BN J78-0-935172-38-6 



1 780935" 17^